عنوان مقاله [English]
The current conditions of society and the importance of a knowledge-based society have led schools, students and families to seek a more comprehensive and comprehensive education. Therefore, educational systems have been subject to judgment and accountability more than before. Dynamic learning system needs to be evaluated to deal with any changes and enhancements in quality, and continuous improvement of the quality of education requires the establishment of a sub-system of evaluation and quality assurance, and the use of scientific methods in this regard. In the last few decades, the transformation of this branch of education has been such that, according to King and Alkin (2018), educational evaluation is "investing in people and progress."
One of the programs to evaluate and assure the quality of educational systems is to use the "accreditation system"; Because accreditation is a quality assurance tool that ensures a consistent improvement in the quality and durability of the provided training, it is based on the assumption that in order to achieve quality assurance, it is necessary to continuously and accurately evaluate, measure, review and review Programs and educational institutions.
Considering the obvious evidence of poor quality of schools in students' overall guidance and growth, the growing decline in education budget and low level of knowledge and skills of graduates, paying attention to productivity and reducing costs and increasing the quality is essential. As a result, schools need to have a precise and transparent tool for accreditation their effective organizational activities in the education landscape in order to become institutionalized. The researches carried out in the field of accreditation have not provided a comparative model for accrediting theoretical schools, which includes all aspects of the school as a social system so that it can accredit the schools. Given the importance of the issue, the design of the School accreditation Model is inevitable.
The purpose of this study was to design an accreditation model for teaching quality assurance in the theoretical secondary schools using a qualitative content analysis method with inductive approach. The participants in the research consisted of four groups of education experts, experts in accreditation, officials in education and training, and documents. In order to select the sample, a targeted sampling method was used. Sampling continued to the extent that the researcher reached a theoretical saturation using a semi-structured interview with 35 sample members. The research tool was a semi-structured interview and document analysis. The content validity of the interview was obtained from the viewpoint of the education specialists and To validate, data was coded, named, categorized and analyzed for coding and validation of the findings was confirmed by interviewers using three methods, Triangulation and peer review. The results show that the accreditation model of the secondary schools has the following seven factors (Organizational structure, physical structure, teacher individual factors (administrative and educational staff), Individual factors are students, political factors, cultural factors and technical core of teaching and learning). The core of teaching and learning in the proposed model has 10 criteria. Other activities are secondary to the mission of teaching and learning, This process shapes the many managerial decisions that must be taken in schools. The technical core of teaching and learning directly influences the other factors of the proposed accreditation model and also influences them. In the model presented in the present study, the existence of an efficient and effective organizational structure including the bureaucratic expectations of demands and formal requirements that the organization determines is emphasized. Individuals are also the main element in all social systems (the school has both a structural dimension and a subsequent individual). Teachers, administrative and educational staff, and students with their own individual needs, goals and beliefs, and create personal orientations and rational understanding of their roles. Two important and influential factors in the accreditation of schools and emphasized in the model presented in this study are cultural factor and political factor. In this model, culture is beyond the formal and individual aspects of organizational life, and deals with common meanings and unwritten rules that guide organizational behaviour. Based on this model, attention should be paid to the symbolic nature of social interactions in schools, and what happens in schools should be interpreted in the context of school culture. Schools are also susceptible to political activity due to their loose structure. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the political factors in designing a accreditation model. as a result, by identifying 60 criteria and 266 indicators in line with the characteristics of the secondary schools for the above seven factors, the suggested model for accrediting secondary schools was introduced.
The proposed model illustrates the fact that the secondary schools are a complex and multi-dimensional theoretical concept that if considered with seven factors mentioned, such as an open social system, the more the coordination between the seven factors, the more effective and credible the system Is. School outcomes are a function of teaching and learning interaction, structure, individuals, culture, and policies that are limited by the forces of the environment.
This is a new, academic, and a small move in the direction of increasing the productive and productive vision of the credibility of the education system of the country. Therefore, the results can be used both at the micro level and at the macro level.
The present study was confronted with limitations that one of them is the extent and focus of education in the country. Although the participants included education experts, managers of various education levels, and experts in accrediting and assuring quality in the national context, the model might have been designed for large, high schools and first-class schools in big cities. As a result, its generalization should be done with caution to other theoretical secondary schools, and especially rural and remote small schools with their own specific constraints. The lack of related studies and researches based on similar methodology in the field of study and difficult access for participants in the research were also the limitations of the researcher and the difficulties of this research.
Key words: Accreditation, Quality Assurance, Secondary Schools, Content Analysis, Culture