عنوان مقاله [English]
It is impossible to achieve the goals of education in any society despite the psychological, social and behavioral disorders among the students. Phenomena such as bullying and victimization at such an age and the emergence of a series of social patterns and classes within the school can negatively threaten their social health during this period of childhood and adolescence transition (Lester, 2012).
Scientific attention to the bullying phenomenon began with the work of Dan Alveus in the late 1970s. Alveus defines bullying at school as a negative and repetitive activity that targets an individual or group of students and is characterized by a kind of power imbalance between the bully and the victim (Alveus, 1993a).
However, recent studies have shown that the prevalence of bullying in school, in addition to the psychological, behavioral and academic status of students, has a significant relationship with their negative perception of the classroom and the school as a whole, and some researchers acknowledge that any program Improving this situation and students' perceptions will not be effective without proper anti-bullying interventions by school management (Hammig & Jozkowski, 2013).
The research method of the present study was quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test design and control group. The statistical population included all boys' secondary schools in Sanandaj in the 97-96 academic year. For the selection of schools, the experimental group and the control group, considering that several studies have shown so far that the probability of bullying in schools with low socioeconomic classes is higher (Bolandhematan, 2010, Tippett & Wolke, 2014),
Anti-bullying training program
The training program used in this research is part of a package that has been designed and validated for the first time in Iran under the title of "Integrated Anti-Bullying Training Program" in the form of a doctoral dissertation and based on a combination of existing anti-bullying programs and resources (Hosseini, 2017). This comprehensive anti-bullying program includes written educational sessions for four groups of school management factors, teachers, students and parents, and in the present study, educational sessions have been used for the school group and the teachers' group.
Research implementation method
After selecting the schools, the experimental and control groups and making the necessary arrangements, the preparations for the exams and the implementation of the educational program were prepared. The Rovaia etal., 2004 Student Questionnaire Assessment Questionnaire (Rovaia etal., 2004) was first developed as a pre-test at the level of both schools for all students. In the main phase of the research, seven 90-minute training sessions were held for the school management group, including the principal, the deputy principal, the deputy principal, the tutor, the principal, and the school counselor.
Methods of data analysis
To analyze data, in addition to descriptive statistics, in the inferential section, to examine the overall score of students' perception of school and classroom atmosphere, as well as to examine social dimension scores and learn this perception, use multivariate analysis of covariance (Mankova). SPSS statistical software was used.
The obtained data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance and statistical software. The findings showed a significant effect of anti-bullying program on improving the perception of experimental school students in the social dimension at the school management level and in the classroom (P <0.05). But there was no noticeable change in students' perceptions when learning. Considering these findings, it is suggested that school management and teacher training be included in the priority programs of education and training in order to implement anti-bullying interventions and, of course, improve students' perception of school and classroom atmosphere.
The results of this study showed that the implementation of the anti-bullying program designed to improve students' overall perception of both the school atmosphere and the classroom atmosphere, especially in the social dimension, has been effective.
Explaining the effectiveness of the anti-bullying program on improving students' overall perception of the classroom and school atmosphere, it should be noted that the type of student's perception of the educational atmosphere is affected by all past and present experiences in this environment. In the field of peer aggression, the school and classroom variable that is measured by students 'perceptions of it has always been recognized as an influential component, and research has established a two-way relationship between the prevalence of aggression and bullying in schools and students' negative perceptions of space. Educational acknowledgment (Beaudoin & Roberge, 2015).
One of the main effects of anti-bullying programs is similar to the current program among students. They are being bullied. This confirms that school and teacher management can have a positive effect on students' sense of belonging to the school and improve their perception of the educational environment by engaging in anti-bullying programs (Backus, 201).
Given that school principals are the most influential in combating bullying at school, it is recommended that all principals be taught in a comprehensive anti-bullying course how to prepare and install school bullying rules and charters at the beginning of the school year. To raise issues for teachers and educate them and to involve them in combating this phenomenon, to inform students and educate them by using the available forces, including school counseling, to create an atmosphere of confrontation with any bullying in the school environment and to have a certificate of these trainings. One of the requirements of post management is to be managed. In the research dimension, considering that this is the first anti-bullying program designed in Iran, it is suggested that other researches with the same program in other regions of the country and in more schools both to examine its generalizability and to examine its effectiveness on dependent variables and There are many other things to do inside the school.