عنوان مقاله [English]
Studies on the effectiveness of schools have confirmed the role of principals in the success of schools (Louis et al. (2010); Schmidt Davis and Bottoms (2011); Prasertcharoensuk and Tang (2017)). The study of Sammons and Bakkum (2011) showed that leadership leads to creating a constructive behavioral climate, positive motivation in the learners, and learning culture whose result can be positive changes in the students and school improvement in general. Specifically, strategies of school teachers inevitably lead to the schools′ effectiveness. According to the study of Prasertcharoensuk and Tang (2017), the term “school effectiveness” refers to the multidimensional effectiveness of the leaders, teachers, and students of the school in reaching educational goals (Creemers and Kyriakides (2010); Lee and Choi (2003); Scheerens (2013); Wen-Ling Shih and Chun-Yen Tsai (2016)). In terms of school leadership, effectiveness is defined as reaching goals. In the present study, the relationship of development and self-efficacy of principals with the school effectiveness of first and second grades of high school was examined. The lack of development and self-efficacy of principals can yield problems. According to the above-mentioned points, this study aims to find if there is any correlation between development and self-efficacy of principals and school effectiveness.
This study had survey approach. It used descriptive methods for applied goals. Statistical population included all principals of first and second grades of high school in Khoramabad City (n=175). Based on Morgan Table, the sample size of 150 school principals was obtained. To select the representative sample of the principals, relative stratified random sampling method was used and finally, 103 men and 47 women were selected as the sample. In order to gather data, the standard questionnaire of content development of principals adopted from Farahi Bozanjani (2003) with 30 elements was used. This questionnaire measures three elements including knowledge (10 elements), ability (10 elements), and skill (10 elements) using a 5-point Likert scale. Content and predictive validity of this tool have been confirmed in prior studies (Farahi Bozanjani, 2002). In this study, correlation coefficients for three elements of knowledge, ability, and skill were obtained to be 0.90, 0.92, and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure self-efficacy variable, the questionnaire of Petrido et al. (2014, cited in Foladvand, (2015)) was used. The questionnaire included 31 elements, measuring self-efficacy of school principals. It also used a 5-point Likert scale (1=quite disagreed and 5= quite agreed) with the minimum score of 31 and the maximum score of 155 (Foladvand, 2015). In order to determine the consistency of this measure, Chronbach Alpha was used whose value in this study was obtained to be 0.95. In order to measure the variable of school effectiveness, the standard questionnaire of school effectiveness of Hoy and Miskel (2013) was used; it included 8 elements scored by a 5-point Likert scale. Minimum and maximum likely score in this tool was 8-40. To determine consistency of this measure, Chronbach Alpha was used whose value in this study was obtained to be 0.90. Validity and consistency of this tool were confirmed in prior studies (Hoy & Miskel, 2013). Consistency of all questionnaires was confirmed by Chronbach Alpha and their content validity was also verified by the ideas of experts. In order to analyze data, descriptive and referential statistics were used. Obtained results showed that the development of the principals and its elements (including skill, ability, knowledge) were positively and significantly correlated with the school effectiveness (r=0.26, 0.28, and 0.26). Results also showed a positive and significant correlation of self-efficacy of the principals and its elements (r=0.45). Finally, in the model of regression prediction, just ability (B =0.28) and leadership (B =0.50) showed to have predictability power. The finding of this study is indirectly correlated with prior studies of Lee and Choi (2003), Lee and Lee (2007); Soon and Zainol (2011), Wen Ling Shih and Chun Yen Tsai (2016). This result is also consistent with the findings of the studies of Zembat et al. (2010), Ali Al-Harthi and Hendawy Al-Mahdy(2017), Bird et al.( 2013), and Boonla and Treputtharat (2014). The study of Zembat et al. (2010) also confirmed the role of leadership styles in the effectiveness of schools. In a similar study, Bird et al. (2013) concluded that the activities of the principals lead to improving school processes. Regarding other finding of this study, a positive and significant correlation was found between managerial skills and school effectiveness. Studies have shown that successful schools have principals who have created professional culture and effectiveness (Afkhami Kheirabadi et al., 2006). Based on the findings of this study, a significant correlation was found between developing the competencies of the principals in terms of skills, ability, and knowledge dimensions. Thus, it can be suggested that various dimensions of principals′ competencies are concerned by the authorities of Education Department. Principals of Education Departments are also suggested to prioritize consistent development of school teachers for preserving school effectiveness in the policies of training and developing human resources. In the present study, empirical evidences imply principals ‘perceptions about gaining school effectiveness by means of developing principals′ competencies. Results also suggest that principals are very important in achieving educational as well as organizational goals and school effectiveness.
This study had limitations as well. These limitations included the lack of control over all unwanted variables which may have affected the results of this study. Newness of the studied variables and the lack of access to the broad and growing theories were our other limitations. Despite above-mentioned limitations in the present study, a new, growing, and excellent study area has been opened. On this basis, it can be suggested that this study is replicated in other schools and at different educational levels in order to gain more certainty by replicating the results. Also, by looking at the results and their comparisons with scrutiny, differences and similarities between the schools in terms of development and self-efficacy of their principals and school effectiveness can be identified. As a result, by developing competencies and improving self-efficacy of the principals, the effectiveness of the schools can be increased.