راهبردهای مناسبِ افزایش پیوند خانه، مدرسه و جامعه؛ تأملی در تجربیات جهانی

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی (کیفی)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه ریزی درسی دانشگاه تبریز، عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشکده سیاست پژوهی و مطالعات حکمت، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشگاه تبریز

3 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه ریزی درسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

شکاف حیطه‌ی مشارکت والدین / مدارس نظام آموزش‌وپرورش را به کژ کارکردی مبتلا کرده است. از این‌رو در پژوهش حاضر سعی شده است که با رویکرد کیفی و روش سنتزپژوهی به راه‌های جلب مشارکت والدین در مدارس بر اساس تجربیات جهان پرداخته شود. در بخش چارچوب نظری پژوهش ابعاد شش‌گانه پیشنهادی اپستین مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. درنهایت راهبردهای مناسب بر اساس هر یک از ابعاد شش‌گانه تشریح شد به‌طوری که در بعد فرزند پروری؛ ایجاد مرکز کتابخانه‌ای برای والدین، برنامه‌های حمایت خانواده، مدیریت فضای مجازی با تشکیل school networking و برگزاری کارگاه‌های آموزش والدین، بعد ارتباط یابی؛ ایجاد کانال‌های ارتباطی شفاهی و رودررو، ارتباط یابی کتبی و اینترنتی، کارت‌های گزارش عملکرد دانش‌آموزان، به‌کارگیری یک رابط مدرسه/خانه، ایجاد اطلاع‌رسان power school، بعد مشارکت داوطلبانه؛ ارزیابی استعدادهای والدین، تقویت باورپذیری در والدین داوطلب، دعوت از داوطلبان در رویداد‌های مدرسه، نظرسنجی سالانه، نظارت بر نحوه اخذ کمک‌های مالی و طرح‌ریزی یک برنامه منعطف، بعد یادگیری در خانه؛ شامل مجموعه‌ای از راهبردها از جمله آموزش تخصصی معلمان با محوریت یادگیری در خانه، آموزش تخصصی والدین با محوریت ارائه راهنمای تکالیف خانگی و تقویت رفتار تعاملی دانش‌آموز با محوریت ارائه تکالیف خانگی تعاملی، بعد تصمیم‌گیری؛ تشکیل سازمان والدین، تهیه چک‌لیست انتظارات والدین، تشویق والدین به مشارکت در فرصت‌های غیررسمی، گزینش افراد انتخاب شده به عنوان نماینده اولیاء در اقوام و گروه‌های مختلف اجتماع، بعد همکاری با سازمان‌های اجتماعی؛ شناسایی سازمان‌های مرتبط با امور مدارس، دعوت از سازمان‌های اجتماعی، شبکه‌سازی مدارس، دسترسی به نقشه منابع اجتماعی از مهم‌ترین راهبردهای مشارکت والدین/ مدرسه به شمار می‌رود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Appropriate strategies for increasing the linkage between home, school and Community; Utilization of global experiences

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sohrab Mohammadi Pouya 1
  • yusef adib 2
  • Ahmad Zarei 3
1 PhD Student of Curriculum Development, University of Tabriz, Faculty member of Hekmat Policy Research and Strategic Studies Institute, Tehran, Iran.
2 tabriz uni
3 MA. Of Practices and training programs Group, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Nowadays, the nature of education is not limited to instructional subject and its scope has spread to different sections of a society - like family, schools and local and outer communities. In fact, the participation of school, home and community is one of the most fundamental issues in every educational system, that its correct operation can provide the grounds for achieving educational goals. Thus, we have used the research synthesis method to identify appropriate strategies for involving parents, schools and community based on a combination of relevant research. In the theoretical framework of the research, the Epstein's Framework of Six Types of Involvement (2004) were used. Her six dimensions are: parenting, communication, volunteering, learning at home, decision-making, and collaboration with community. Parenting: Type 1 involvement occurs when family practices and home environments support “children as students” and when schools understand their children’s families. Communicating: Type 2 involvement occurs when educators, students, and families “design effective forms of school-to-home and home-to-school communications.” Volunteering: Type 3 involvement occurs when educators, students, and families “recruit and organize parent help and support” and count parents as an audience for student activities. Learning at Home: Type 4 involvement occurs when information, ideas, or training are provided to educate families about how they can “help students at home with homework and other curriculum-related activities, decisions, and planning.” Decision Making: Type 5 involvement occurs when schools “include parents in school decisions” and “develop parent leaders and representatives.” Collaborating with the Community: Type 6 involvement occurs when community services, resources, and partners are integrated into the educational process to “strengthen school programs, family practices, and student learning and development.” In order to achieve data at the international level, strategies for parental involvement in schools were systematically selected, content analyzed and categorized. As the first step; Inclusion criteria were considered. Accordingly, the geographical area: all over the world, the language of reports: English, the type of document: written (books, articles, dissertations, research reports, etc.) and non-written (sites, library software, etc.). Databases such as School website, Google scholar, Elsevier, Science Direct were searched from 1991 to 2017 using the keywords parent involvement strategies, parenting, communicate, volunteering, decision making, learning at home and collaborate with the community. In the screening stage, 32 studies with related characteristics were selected and presented based on the principles of data aggregation, analysis and rearrangement. According to the research findings, appropriate strategies are described based on Epstein's Framework of Six Types of Involvement. Parenting: Type 1 involvement include made a parent resource center, provide family support program, formation a school networking for Cyberspace management and Set up parent workshop. Communication: Type 2 involvement include Creating oral and face-to-face communication channels, writing and Internet communication, student performance report cards, using a school / home liaison, building a power school database. Volunteering: Type 3 involvement include Identifying parental talent, Reinforcement belief in volunteer parents, inviting volunteers to school events, conducting annual surveys, monitoring financial assistance and planning a flexible program. Learning at home: Type 4 involvement include Teachers' training focused on learning at home, parental training focused on providing Homework Guidelines and present interactive homework. decision - making: Type 5 involvement include formation a parent organization, provision a parental expectation checklist, parent/school involvement in informal opportunities and selection parental representatives in different communities and groups. Collaborate with community: Type 6 involvement include Identification of organizations related to school affairs, invite of social organizations, made a school network, and access to community resources map. Finally, According to the research findings and prevalence of coronavirus in the world, identified strategies in our research have become very important. For example, even though during the stay of students at home and closure of face-to-face education, learning at home strategies was a very effective factor in improving the performance and quality of virtual education, but Unfortunately, lack of implementation and realization of this issue in the educational system of Iran, there were problems for education in the mentioned period. Also, the lack of effective communication between schools and, social organizations provided the ground for losing the opportunity and time for proper education during the corona outbreak.
Keywords: Appropriate Strategies, Participation, Schools, Parents, Community.

Abstract
Nowadays, the nature of education is not limited to instructional subject and its scope has spread to different sections of a society - like family, schools and local and outer communities. In fact, the participation of school, home and community is one of the most fundamental issues in every educational system, that its correct operation can provide the grounds for achieving educational goals. Thus, we have used the research synthesis method to identify appropriate strategies for involving parents, schools and community based on a combination of relevant research
Abstract
Nowadays, the nature of education is not limited to instructional subject and its scope has spread to different sections of a society - like family, schools and local and outer communities. In fact, the participation of school, home and community is one of the most fundamental issues in every educational system, that its correct operation can provide the grounds for achieving educational goals. Thus, we have used the research synthesis method to identify appropriate strategies for involving parents, schools and community based on a combination of relevant research

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Appropriate Strategies
  • participation
  • schools
  • parents
  • Community