عنوان مقاله [English]
In the last decades of the 20th century, education systems tended towards decentralized and participatory patterns of cultural, economic, and social change. These patterns, which in some way give rise to changes in the environment and change the attitudes and expectations of the society, by encouraging more flexible structures, promise the greater participation of the various classes of society (especially those interested in financial investment and education and training in Schools) parents, managers, teachers, administrative staff of schools and students in the decision making process brought the effectiveness and effectiveness of the educational system. On the other hand, since these changes were primarily based on giving more authority to schools or giving them the authority to decide on school issues within schools themselves, as well as drawing on the participation of individuals and groups of beneficiaries in each school, and eventually independence The school-based management (SBM) term was used by scholars as a universal term used to express these changes in world education systems, and were used more responsibly by schools for the purposes of the school and the local community.
School-based management has been proposed in various countries as a strategy for reforming education in recent decades, and there is a strong desire to delegate authority to schools to improve the quality of education. There are many interests and experiences in different countries that make decision-making at the school level so that community members' access to quality education is enhanced and people's participation in school administration increases within the framework of national policies.
The centralized management of education in the country and the lack of proper participation of managers, staff, parents and students in decisions about how to manage the school and how to solve its problems and limitations have been shadowed over the educational system for many years. The situation has also reduced the effectiveness of schools. Therefore, the necessity of revision and transformation in this system, in the direction of decentralization, empowerment, collective participation and strengthening of morality and human relations, has been confirmed and emphasized by experts in various ways.
The move towards school-based management is a hallmark of educational developments over the past two decades, and is aimed at improving school performance and improving the quality of education. However, while our country's educational system, even if it wants to experience this type of management in schools, still does not have a consensus on how to implement this strategy, and there are many obstacles and challenges for the establishment of this management.
The main claim of the school-centered school is that the autonomy and autonomy of the schools should be increased to determine their own policy and solve their problems. To put it more precisely, taking people into consideration, activating teachers during education, paying attention to social and cultural conditions, increasing public participation and taking into account the students' interests and aspirations, and, finally, meeting the various needs of this vast country, according to the requirements of different regions. The country is considered to be important issues that school-centered supporters emphasize.
Obstacles and challenges to the progress of school-based management in the country should be carefully identified and solutions to address them, which requires a lot of studies and research in different parts of the country. In this context, it is important to examine the views of school administrators and teachers who are directly involved with these obstacles and challenges.
According to the above mentioned, the present research seeks to answer the following questions:
1- How do participants assess the current status of schools for the establishment of school-based management?
2- From the perspective of contributors, what are the obstacles to the establishment of school-based school management?
3. What do the participants suggest to improve the establishment of school-based management?
The study examines the barriers to the establishment of school-based management and provides solutions. The research was based on qualitative approach using the phenomenological method and semi-structured interview was used to collect data. The population included all the managers and teachers of the high schools in Marivan city which purposefully and based on the saturation rule 11 of them were selected as the research sample. Based on the findings, the current condition of schools for the establishment of school-based management is not appropriate. The barriers categories in 6: policy and decision making, economic, structural, knowledge and information, personal and cultural and social. finally, the strategies include: the consideration and justification of the relevant authorities in relation to this kind of management, the efforts to move the educational system towards decentralization, and the provision of the necessary grounds for it, conducting the studies and research, holding meetings, workshops, seminars, conferences and training courses to increase and strengthen the knowledge and information of managers and teachers in relation to school-based curriculum, allocating adequate and adequate funds to schools, Strengthening the motivation and confidence of managers to undertake this responsibility, allocate adequate facilities to schools And attempted to justify the parents and other community institutions and encourage their participation in various ways to improve the proper establishment of school-based management.
The results of this study and similar studies in view of the fact that the major barriers and challenges in schools have been identified as one of the most important steps in designing and implementing an innovation as a school-based management.
Finally, according to the results of the research on the inadequacy of the conditions of schools in Marivan for the establishment of school-based management, and also with regard to the importance of this type of management in today's world and the emphasis of the experts on it, it is suggested that the educational authorities take steps Sentence: Empowerment and decision-making power from high level management to low levels, providing facilities and budgets for schools, providing and planning necessary and adequate training for managers and teachers in a variety of ways. Such as holding workshops, conferences, etc., efforts to attract parental partnerships and other community institutions and encouragement Put on the agenda for relevant studies and research. It is also suggested that researchers conduct similar research on the subject in other parts of the country in order to identify the barriers and strategies for establishing school-based school management in the country more and better.