شناسایی موانع و چالش های کاربرد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در مدارس ایران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی (ترکیبی/ آمیخته)

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت، واحد ساری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ساری، ایران

2 گروه مدیریت، واحد قائمشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قائمشهر، ایران،

چکیده

فن‌آوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات به عنوان یک جزء مهم از مرحله آموزش در کلاس‌های درس است. هدف کلی این پژوهش شناسایی موانع و چالش‌های کاربرد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در مدارس ایران بود. روش پژوهش‌ با رویکرد آمیخته با طرح اکتشافی انجام شد. در رویکرد مصاحبه، از روش هدفمند و در رویکرد کمی، از روش توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی استفاده شد. برای تدوین پرسشنامه از مصاحبه با خبرگان استفاده شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کلیه مدیران مدارس ایران (105968 نفر) تشکیل می‌دادند که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی- خوشه‌ای و بر اساس فرمول کوکران تعداد 383 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. جهت جمع‌آوری داده‌ها به روش میدانی و از پرسش‌نامه محقق ساخته موانع و چالش‌های کاربرد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات با 75 سوال و 14 مولفه استفاده شد. روایی صوری و محتوایی ابزار به تایید متخصصان رسید؛ و روایی همگرای آن با استفاده از ضرایب میانگین واریانس استخراجی (AVE) محاسبه شد که مقادیر AVE برای کلیه مؤلفه‌ها بزرگتر از 5/0 بود. آلفای کرونباخ و پایایی ترکیبی بالاتر از 7/0 محاسبه و تایید شد. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تحلیل عاملی تاییدی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که؛ موانع و چالش‌های کاربرد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات دارای چهارده مؤلفه‌ (موانع ساختاری، موانع آموزشی، موانع منابع انسانی، موانع تجهیزات و مواد آموزشی، موانع مدیریتی، موانع خدمات پشتیبانی معلمان، عدم آمادگی شناختی معلمان، عدم تربیت معلمان برای تدریس در الگوی نوین تدریس، موانع انگیزشی، موانع فرهنگی، موانع اقتصادی، موانع اجتماعی، موانع سازمانی است .

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying barriers and challenges in the application of information and communication technology in Iranian schools

نویسندگان [English]

  • masomeh tavakoli abandansari 1
  • Ebrahim Halajian 2
1 Department of Management, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
2 Department of Management Qaem shar Branch Islamic Azad University, Qaemshar Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Information and communication technology is an important component of the teaching and learning phase in the classroom. Many people realize the importance and impact of information and communication technology in their daily lives. The research was applied in terms of purpose and methodological in terms of survey. The statistical population consisted of all school principals in Iran (105968) who were selected using random-cluster sampling method and based on Cochran formula, 383 students were selected. A researcher-made questionnaire with 75 questions was used to collect data. The face and content validity of the instrument was confirmed by experts and its convergent validity was confirmed. And their reliability was calculated above 0.7, which was confirmed. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to analyze the data. The results showed that four barriers to using ICTs were related to fourteen components (structural barriers, educational barriers, human resource barriers, equipment and educational barriers, managerial barriers, teacher support services barriers, teacher cognitive disadvantage, and lack of teacher training). In the new teaching model, motivational barriers, cultural barriers, economic barriers, social barriers, organizational barriers, and individual barriers are the ones that have the most non-educated component of teaching in the new teaching model, and the component of personal barriers has the least share.

Today, technology plays an important role in people's lives and many people have realized the importance and impact of information and communication technology in their daily lives. Significant advances in information and communication technology have opened the windows of science and knowledge to everyone (Enayati et al., 2011). Information and communication technology is an important component of the teaching and learning phase in the classroom (Erfan and Fenk, 2014). In fact, information and communication technology has been used as a powerful tool in responding to educational challenges and has created new horizons in the educational world by providing access to databases at any time and place. Zakeri et al., 2011).
Under these circumstances, today, traditional methods no longer meet the huge volume of demand for education and e-learning literacy has been proposed as a way to move to the information society instead of conventional literacy (Yaghoubi et al., 2008).
Research shows that information technology leads to better organization and management of educational environments. In many countries, the use of information and communication technology in the education system in order to improve the quality of teaching and learning methods has received special attention (Pelgram, 2001); Because its increasing entry and expansion has provided effective tools at the disposal of specialists and those in charge of education in order to change and improve teaching and learning methods, excellence in educational goals, and educational reforms (Rahmani et al., 2006).
Information and communication technology has caused education to turn to new, efficient and effective models to deal with the increasing complexities and needs of today's world (Enayati et al., 2011).
Despite the introduction of information and communication technology into the educational system and the holding of educational workshops and in-service courses for education staff and teachers, the question arises as to why the use of new educational technologies in the teaching and learning process It is slow or not in a good condition. Despite the volume of investments in this field and the benefits stated for its application, the evidence shows that the success rate of application of this technology has not been very satisfactory (Koktas et al., 2013).
Babaian Jelodar (2017), in a study entitled "Study of barriers to the adoption and use of information and communication technology in primary schools in Babol" showed that; The most important barriers to the adoption of ICT in the eyes of teachers are barriers related to motivational issues and the most important barriers to the use of ICT have been barriers related to structural-organizational issues; Nowruzi and Iqlim Arkani (2016), in a study entitled "Study of barriers to the use of information technology in the education of information science and science students of Payame Noor University, Tonekabon Branch" showed that; Among the barriers to the use of information technology in education, technical barriers with an average of 4.067, human barriers with an average of 4.027, managerial barriers with an average of 4.022, economic barriers with an average of 4.116, cultural barriers with an average of 3.964, Ranked first to fifth; Montazeri et al. (2016), in a study entitled "Challenges and obstacles to the implementation of comprehensive information and communication technology projects in organizations" showed that; The nine key factors that hinder the implementation of ICT projects in organizations are: organizational problems, managerial factors, cultural-educational factors, the level of human resource skills, security, private sector empowerment, financial economics, government support, technological context. Farajollahi et al. (2013), in a study entitled "Study of barriers to the use of information and communication technology in the teaching and learning process from the perspective of teachers in the second district of Qom province" showed that; Barriers to the use of information and communication technology in the teaching and learning process include six factors: poor physical infrastructure, poor management infrastructure, poor teacher support services, lack of teacher cognitive readiness, lack of teacher training to teach in the new teaching model, and lack of planning There are technological lessons and cultural preparation of teachers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • barriers
  • Use
  • ICT
  • schools