تدوین الگوی آموزش کارآفرینی دانش‌آموزان مدارس دوره دوم متوسطه

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی (ترکیبی/ آمیخته)

نویسندگان

1 مشاور مدارس -مدرس مدعو دانشگاه فرهنگیان

2 استاد یار وزارت علوم تحقیقات وفناوری تهران

3 استادیاردانشکده کارآفرینی ،دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
با توجه به نقش کارآفرینی درنظام آموزش وپرورش لزوم الگویی در این زمینه برای دانش آموزان مدارس ضروری می باشد. پژوهش حاضر، کمی و کیفی بوده که در بخش کمی از روش پیمایشی و در بخش کیفی از روش داده بنیاد استفاده شده است. در مرحله کیفی از ابزار مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته و در مرحله کمی از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته استفاده شده است. تحقیق حاضر شامل دو جامعه آماری است که جامعه اول را متخصصان و صاحب نظران حوزه آموزش کارآفرینی و جامعه دوم را معلمان دوره دوم متوسطه با سابقه آموزش کارآفرینی که مجموع این افراد در بخش کیفی13 نفر و در بخش کمی180بودند.برای تعیین حجم نمونه از جدول مورگان استفاده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها به کمک دو نرم افزار SPSSوAmos صورت پذیرفت. یافته های تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که از میان عوامل مؤثر بر مدل برنامه آموزش کارآفرینی، بی‌ثباتی در بازار کار در میان آسیب های آموزش کارآفرینی، تعامل مراکز تولیدی و صنعتی در میان اهداف مطلوب آموزش کارآفرینی، جذابیّت و قابلیت دسترسی در میان محتوای مناسب آموزش کارآفرینی، توا نایی حل مسئله در میان روش‌های تدریس کارآفرینی، و ارزشیابی از طرح کسب وکار در میان روش‌های ارزشیابی آموزش‌های کارآفرینی دارای بیشترین ضریب تأثیر بوده است. با توجه به نتایج پیشنهاد می شود که برنامه آموزشی هدفمند در راستای آموزش کارآفرینی در مدارس طراحی و تدوین گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Edited model for entrepreneurship education for high school students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yusef Mohebzadegan 2
  • Muhammad Azizi 3
2 Assistant Professor of Sciences, Research and TechnologyTehran
3 Assistant Professor in Faculty of Entrepreneurship, Tehran University,
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop a model of entrepreneurship education for high school students.
Education has the most important and key role in entrepreneurship development. Since education has a key role in educating people in the community, it is necessary to lay the cultural foundations and values of entrepreneurship in schools. Schools as an organization must evolve; Strategy or approach of transition from traditional schools to entrepreneurial schools, culture and value creation, followed by creating a suitable platform for cultivating entrepreneurial ideas and attitude.

Research methodology: The present study was quantitative and qualitative. In the quantitative part, the survey method is used and in the qualitative part, the data method of the foundation is used, which in the qualitative stage is a semi-structured interview tool and in the quantitative stage is a researcher-made questionnaire. The present study includes two statistical communities, the first of which consists of specialists and experts in the field of entrepreneurship education. These people had executive and experimental backgrounds in the field of entrepreneurship education in the field of education, industry or businesses related to entrepreneurship in the field of education. The second group consisted of secondary school teachers with a history of entrepreneurship education in the 97-98 academic year in Tabriz schools. The total number of these people was 13 in the qualitative section and 180 in the quantitative section. In this research, library studies, interviews and questionnaires have been used to collect information.
In the qualitative part, open, centralized and selective coding methods were used to analyze the interviews. After open coding and extracting the categories as well as axial coding and the relationship between the categories in the form of paradigm components (contextual, causal, mediating, phenomenon-oriented conditions, consequences and strategies), in the next stage to coding Selective and interpretive relationships between classes were discussed. In the quantitative part, first, descriptive statistics of frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, variance) were used to describe the data as well as the demographic characteristics of the participants in the research, in which the diagram was used. In the last step, in the side findings section of the research, Friedman test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis test were used in the inferential statistics section. SPSS-22 and Amos software were used to perform the mentioned statistical operations.
Findings: The present study shows that the elements of the entrepreneurship education program system for students of the second year of high school are the disadvantages of entrepreneurship education (626.6), the goals of entrepreneurship education (5.756), the content of entrepreneurship education (6.114), The teaching methods are entrepreneurship education (5.769), and the methods of evaluation are entrepreneurship education (5.986). Findings of the present study showed that among the factors affecting the model of entrepreneurship education program, instability in the labor market among the disadvantages of entrepreneurship education, the interaction of production and industrial centers among the desired goals of entrepreneurship education, attractiveness and accessibility among content Appropriate entrepreneurship training, problem solving ability among entrepreneurship teaching methods, and evaluation of business plan among entrepreneurship training evaluation methods had the highest impact factor.
Conclusion:It can be inferred that entrepreneurship education in the second year of high school with challenges such as reducing the acceptance of entrepreneurship training courses and not continuing them as before, managerial / executive factors, social factors, cultural factors, structural factors And legal and economic factors, lack of correct attitude towards the relationship between entrepreneurship education and increasing the level of knowledge and entrepreneurial skills of individuals, lack of interest in participating in entrepreneurship classes, inability to express and convey content by teachers, reducing student communication Faces the teacher with scientific problems, and the low level of communication skills of teachers that should be considered.
suggestions:
It is suggested that entrepreneurial and smart schools be established with the aim of identifying and educating entrepreneurial students; Design and develop a purposeful educational program for entrepreneurship education in schools; Provide entrepreneurial teachers in cooperation with Farhangian University and higher education; Establish practical workshops to inform families about the goals of entrepreneurship education in schools; Implement active and participatory methods of teaching entrepreneurship education content in the classroom; Continuous monitoring and evaluation of entrepreneur training at all stages of idea generation and implementation of new projects; Provide material and spiritual reinforcements to increase motivation and self-confidence and maximize students' ability to innovate and be entrepreneurial; Permanent implementation of camps, scientific visits, skill competitions and exhibitions of new achievements of students. It is also suggested that the model of entrepreneurship education for all levels of education in the educational system, the model of entrepreneurship education with a tendency to local and regional culture, entrepreneurship education with the cooperation of private and informal sectors, entrepreneurship education culture through communication between the education system and centers Manufacturing and industrial development should be developed and the harms and challenges of entrepreneurship education in the country and ways to eliminate them should be examined.
Limitations
Due to the lack of similar research to develop a framework for entrepreneurship education, the study of research literature took a long time and a lot of time has been spent to address it. The attitude of some principals, teachers and families towards entrepreneurship education and any change in the school curriculum has caused them to ignore the need for a curriculum model, and this issue has had a negative impact on the current research process and its results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "training
  • "students
  • ": entrepreneurship
  • "training entrepreneurship components
  • "