عنوان مقاله [English]
Today effective management in the educational system, especially in schools as an operational category and the most important place for the realization of educational goals, is of great importance. In the last two decades, in most advanced countries, managers are considered to be the most important driver of educational programs and the effectiveness of schools. School effectiveness studies show that managers' influence depends not only on managerial qualifications and expertise, but also largely influenced by their leadership capabilities. Leadership can be defined as the set of values and purposes that drive principals’ activities, whereas management can be interpreted as the operational decisions that are put in place accordingly. The scholars of this field believe that Educational leadership not only affects the quality of individual teacher training but many research in this area confirms the direct relationship between educational leadership and student learning and shows that the quality of educational leadership has a significant difference in school and student outcomes. Accordingly, the international centers on educating educational leaders has been focused on important and influential factors in the progress and improvement of the status of schools. Among the wide range of issues related to leadership, most leadership skills are considered as the main factor of the difference between effective and less effective schools & the importance of focusing on principals as school leaders is related to their ability to increase school effectiveness and students’ outcomes through their instructional and non-instructional practices. From this perspective, school leadership can be considered a key input in the educational production process and especially as an important factor among school resources. Despite this importance this issue has been underestimated in the literature of leadership, especially in native literature. Evidence suggests that school principals play less leadership role and rarely have the knowledge and skills they need. Among the Educational courses, secondary education is important when it comes to adolescence. In this course, adolescent students become entangled in abstract thinking with issues such as vulnerability, problems and friendship issues and peer pressure, emotional balance and defensive behavior, and may easily engage in unsafe behaviors with long - term negative consequences. Therefore, it seems that the educational system should take the necessary measures to manage these issues and prevent their deepening. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify the leadership skills of high school girls in Tehran. In order to understand the experience of school administrators, a qualitative approach was used with phenomenological approach. The data collection tool was based on a triangulation technique: the fundamental transformation of education, participatory observation, and semi - structured interviews for interview, 15 school principals were selected by snowball method. Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis method. The research findings were categorized in 21 categories, 26 sub categories and 5 themes: “landscape design skills”, “effective communication skills”, “parenting skill“, “guidance and guidance“ and “self - management skills“. Considering the definition of the concept of leadership and the results of this research, it shows that the influence of the leader on school students occurs in two ways: 1. indirect: Impact on students through the mediation of school staff, especially teachers, who are directly involved with students. 2. Direct: Influencing students through direct communication with them. The findings of this research are consistent with the skills gained from the compilation of leadership literature, but it is important to note that in existing literature, the main focus is on the influence of the leader through the mediation of teachers, and in this area issues Like the spirit of teachers, their motivation and the professional development of teachers are discussed But there is not much talk about the direct relationship between the school leader and the students. it is necessary to address student leadership issues as an important part of the school members Also pay attention and the mere attention of the leader to the issues of staff and teachers is not enough to succeed in school performance; because if the school leader fails to bring students on the path to the school vision voluntarily, it would probably be an attempt Teachers in this regard will face serious resistance. In this regard, paying attention to the age - specific characteristics of the students (in this study, high school students) is very important. Considering the importance of the training of educational leaders, it is suggested that professional development programs, the development of school administrators and leaders be designed and implemented. As mentioned not only in the literature of this field this issue has not been addressed, but in terms of the appointment of the directors of the country there is essentially no different understanding for school principals in different educational periods. In the Transformation Document, despite the emphasis on choosing managers based on meritocracy, this is somewhat ambiguous as the Transformation Document does not provide any theoretical definitions and operational plan for measuring meritocracy and achieving it. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that workshops be designed and conducted to continuously train managers for skills in simulated situations with real conditions and professional development programs for school principals, with emphasis on leadership skills, based on the characteristics of each course; because leadership practices may be influenced by a set of contextual conditions and principals’ individual characteristics mediator factors. School principal selection policies should also be rewritten with emphasis on selection based on related education and leadership training courses, as well as rehearsals of the content of the management education with emphasis on attendance in the field of action (schools). Given that the document on the fundamental transformation of education (2011) is at the assessment stage, it is suggested that school management and leadership in the proposed goals and objectives of the document should be redefined according to the role of leadership in school management. Also, the term “meritocracy” is defined in terms of effective school management literature and research findings.