عنوان مقاله [English]
The education system is one of the most important pillars of every country's development, and this critical institution and its human products play a decisive role in the development of countries. Management in educational systems is more important and more difficult, because it deals with human achievement. And among these, school management also has a special role in society because, if we are to achieve a desirable society, we must have successful schools. And this is possible if we have successful school principals. In order to realize this goal, it is necessary to identify the problems of school management by studying the current situation in our schools. And one of their most pressing problems is exploiting the subways. Exploiting subordinates by managers can have an impact on organizational performance. Today, the most important competitive advantage of organizations is in the field of human beings. Obviously, organizations with the appropriate intellectual and human capital will outperform other competitors in the field of competition, exploiting managers of a disadvantage and as a barrier to development from existing status to desirable status. It is and can be a threat to the desired goals of educational planning, so it is a social issue that requires theoretical perspectives to identify this damage and models for explaining social problems. The purpose of this study was to present and describe the lived experiences of school staff about the reasons some principals tend to exploit subordinates in education in order to provide a clear picture of the abuses and the underlying factors of these exploitation.
many managers seem to be inclined to do so, but there is insufficient scientific research on the prevalence of such behavior, which doubles the need to delve deeper into the depth-based approach. In this study, based on the social commentary paradigm, using descriptive phenomenological method, while analyzing the lived experiences of teachers and assistants and understanding their views and gaining a deep understanding of the phenomenon under study, it is searched the causes of managers' tendency to exploit subordinates and offenders be identified and represent it in activities. The phenomenological focus is on the experiences of life, the ones that make sense of each phenomenon for each individual and tell the person what is real and real in his or her life.
In order to collect data, through purposeful sampling and semi-structured interviews 10 teachers and school principals of Mahdi Shahr, Semnan province were inter viewed. These kinds of inter views, because of their flexibility and depth for qualitative research are appropriate. The questions were prepared as an interview guide in advance and an interview protocol was developed to guide the interview process. Prior to the start of the interview, participants were allowed to record the interviews to increase accuracy and robustness of the same findings and to prevent forgetfulness of recall. Interview transcript was transcribed verbatim after repeated listening to be analyzed. Their lived experiences were then analyzed in depth using Colaizzi's seven-step strategy. In order to increase the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability, peer debriefing, negative case analysis, triangulation, member check, explaining the exact details of the data collection and analysis process, long-term immersion, and "inspection and verification at coding time", were utilized. Qualitative writing involves the reporting of textual data and is characterized by vocabulary, topics, and writings. Often participant direct quotes and singular first person pronoun, or in the term "active voice" are used. Such a sound leads to more assurance that in the present study also tried to take into account the features mentioned in the writing. Accuracy and diligence in the lived experience of staff and successive comparisons led to the identification of 4 main factors and 24 sub-factors of education managers' tendency to exploit. The most frequent ones are "how to appoint managers"; "professional characteristics of managers"; "ethical characteristics of managers"; and "subordinate ethics". It should be noted, however, that the ethical characteristics of managers and subordinates were similar to those of the participants. And these four themes can provide a clear picture of the reasons for managers' tendency to exploit.
The first theme is how to appoint managers having 9 themes as follows: Appointment of managers due to lack of manpower; Appointment regardless of work experience and background; Appointment without regard to related field (management); Appointment of managers unfamiliar with job duties Self-appointment due to receiving end-of-service remuneration; Appointment without interest; Appointment without specific selection and filtering; Appointment by individualism and by pleading and appointment without regard to eligibility and meritocracy.
The second theme, namely the professional characteristics of managers, has five themes as follows: Navigating systemic and computer tasks; managing the backyard; lacking in responsibility; refusing to perform tasks and learning tasks and being idealistic.
The third theme, namely, the ethical and personality characteristics of managers, has five themes: tyranny and dominance of managers; opportunism and abuse of manager; comparability of manager; power seeking and sense of superiority and manager and leader. Being a manager.
And finally, the fourth theme, namely the subconscious morality, has five themes as follows: Subordinate cowards; inherently oppressed employees; having emotional relationships with the manager; Subordinate commitment and acceptance of responsibility subject to working or financial conditions.
The result of these factors will be the greater the productivity of the educational system in the longer term and the achievement of its transcendent goals. And given that the ultimate solutions to educational problems and problems are in the hands of educational managers, the potentials and abilities of managers need to be developed as far as possible. The results of this study can be used to develop programs to help develop and enhance the professional competencies of school principals and reduce the damage caused by neglect. Following are some practical suggestions and suggestions based on the research findings. Including: the necessity of holding short-term courses for new appointment managers, as well as meeting with experts and administrative assistants to justify their managerial and managerial duties and acquaintance with new directives, style sheets and guidelines; appropriate use of colleagues' opinions in relation to the selection of managers can be provided; while stricter management requirements, they must create the necessary attractions, both financially and spiritually, to welcome the talented and innovative people from the management post.