عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of this research is to Study of the position of Pedagogy, andragogy and heutagogy educational Approaches in high school teacher's professional development. Heutagogyis a form of self determined learning by an autonomous learner with practices and principles rooted in andragogy where the learner chooses what is to be learned and even how they would like to learn it. In terms of the purpose the present study is applied research and it was carried out in mixed method. This study is a descriptive survey research in quantitative side and we applied systematic review in qualitative phases. The statistical population included all Khozestan teachers. Using a Morgan table, 380 people were selected randomly as the research sample. The study used the researcher-made survey questionnaire as a principal tool for gathering data. This questionnaire made based on systematic review results. Face validity, content validity were used for studying validity and the reliability of it was calculated via Cronbach's alpha. The quantitative data have been analyzed by descriptive and inferential tests. The results of this study showed that among the different approaches in-service teacher education, Pedagogy approach is desirable; whereas Andragogy and Heutagogy approaches is not desirable. By the way, the position of the Heutagogy approach in in-service teacher training.is worse than other approaches. Andragogy and Heutagogy will also help diagnose and address learner's problems and obstacles to effective learning that is happening at the institutional level.
Teachers need to update their knowledge and skills on curricula, psychology, and pedagogy of the learners and new research on teaching and learning; hence, they need appropriate in-service training. In-service teacher training programs refer to the short term education modules that have been specially designed for professionals already working as teachers. These programs might include refresher courses, teaching workshops or even institutional visits to help the teachers gain information that can prove helpful to them in rendering their lessons in an improved and interesting manner. The in-service teacher training courses help to remind the teachers about these experiences and make it possible for them to connect more effectively with their wards. This not only helps to improve the teacher-student relationship but also enhances the quality of education by making the teachers competent enough to address the varying learning needs of the students. There is need to have a well-planned in-service education program with clearly defined objectives growth and improvement of instruction and leadership skills.
In-service training shall be implemented according to a through, comprehensive and well organized plan than includes goals, objectives, strategies, activities, materials, assessment plan and program evaluation procedures that are well defined and coordinated with each other. Teachers are facing new challenges and changes in the education world and it’s important for teachers to equip themselves with new knowledge and skills by attending in-service training in order for them to play an important and effective role as an educator. Besides that, the effectiveness of in-service training is important to ensure that the training is suitable and bring positive effect to the teachers. The importance of in-service training should be looked in various perspectives. It promotes a very flexible environment and allow teachers to adapt with the working situation and it is also one form of motivation for employees or employers and it will continue to increase creativity in teaching and learning process. It also enable teachers to acquire new understanding and instructional skills to develop their effectiveness in the classroom. In-service training places teachers at the center of any improvement effort and assumes that the work of the teacher and the visions that teachers have about improving their work
Four principles that educators should consider in teacher’s in-service training: 1. since teachers are self-directed, they should have a say in the content and process of their learning. 2. Because teachers have so much experience to draw from, their learning should focus on adding to what they have already learned in the past. 3. Since teachers are looking for practical learning, content should focus on issues related to their work or personal life. 4. Learning should be centered on solving problems instead of memorizing content.
Pedagogical approach is to simply lead a learner through a series of foundations and steps slowly building on previous knowledge sets, acquiring prescribed subject matter. This relies on the instructor as the most influential factor to their success. The heutagogical approach encourages learner to find their own problems and questions to answer. An important concept in heutagogy is that of double-loop learning. In this style of learning, learner not only think deeply about a problem and the actions they have taken to solve it, but also reflect upon the problem-solving process itself in-service training. A heutagogical approach in teacher’s in-service training is only possible when the curriculum is flexible and takes into consideration the learners’ questions, motivations, and how thinking shifts as a result of what they’ve learned. Assessment is an important part of all instructional approaches, including heutagogy. However, in this style of learning, learners design their own assessments rather than undergoing standard tests in teacher’s in-service training. Teachers are encouraged to work together—in person and digitally—to achieve a common goal, they can solve problems and reinforce their knowledge by sharing information and experiences, practice concepts, and experimenting. This active involvement and ownership of the learning path and process increases learner self-motivation, eventually leading to development of capability. Capability then emerges from a sense of self-efficacy, where learners feel confident in coping with and performing in new and unfamiliar situations and contexts.
A heutagogical approach in teacher’s in-service training recognizes the need to be flexible in the learning where the teacher provides resources but the learner designs the actual course he or she might take by negotiating the learning. Thus learners might read around critical issues or questions and determine what is of interest and relevance to them and then negotiate further reading and assessment tasks. Regardless of your preferred instructional approach, the goal is to prepare teachers for success in their career and the skills and experience teachers gain from self-determined learning are among the most important.