ارائه الگویی برای توسعۀ فردی معلمان دورۀ ابتدایی مدارس استثنایی: یک مطالعۀ کیفی

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی (کیفی)

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه علوم و تحقیقات

2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 رئیس اداره آموزش و پرورش استثنایی استان همدان

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارائه مدلی برای توسعه فردی معلمان دوره ابتدایی مدارس استثنایی برای دست‌یابی به چهارچوب مفهومی مناسب و توسعه مبانی نظری و عملی آن انجام شده است. این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و روش برخاسته از دادهها انجام ‌شده است. مشارکت‌کنندگان پژوهش شامل صاحبنظران توسعه فردی، آموزش و پرورش استثنایی، تعلیم و تربیت و معلمان خبره مدارس استثنایی استان همدان بوده که از میان آن‌ها 17 نفر و به روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند تا جایی که تحلیل‌ها به اشباع نظری رسیدند. داده‌ها با استفاده از مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختاریافته گردآوری شدند. روش تحلیل، کدگذاری بوده که در سه سطح باز، محوری و انتخابی انجام شده است. یافته‌ها نشان دادند که توسعه فردی معلمان استثنایی شامل شش بخش کلیدی از جمله عوامل فردی (دارای 10 مؤلفه از جمله انگیزه درونی، خودکارآمدی، منبع کنترل درونی، امید، خودتنظیمی، انعطافپذیری، تفکر انتقادی، خودپنداره، تعهد شغلی و آیندهنگری)، فرایند توسعه فردی (دارای 9 مؤلفه شامل شناسایی وضع موجود، شناسایی وظایف و شایستگیها، تفاهم فرد و سازمان، هدفگذاری، تأمین منابع و امکانات، برنامه‌ریزی، اجرا، خودارزیابی و برنامه‌های اصلاحی)؛ عوامل سازمانی ( 5 مؤلفه از جمله تفویض اختیار، نظام مدیریت عملکرد، حمایت سازمانی، توانمندی مدیران و فرهنگ سازمانی)؛ راهبردهای توسعه فردی ( از جمله توسعه استعدادها، شایستهپروری، آموزشهای نوین و کار تیمی)؛ نتایج توسعه شخصی (شامل خلاقیت، تابآوری، خودشکوفایی، خوداحترامی، خودیادگیرندگی، خودهدایتی و خوداتکایی) و نتایج توسعه حرفهای (شامل چهار مؤلفه از جمله خودشناسی، تدریس، تعهد و ارتباطات حرفهای) بودهاند. متناسب با این یافتهها، پیشنهادهای کاربردی ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Provide a model for individual development of elementary school teachers in exceptional schools (A qualitative study)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali TaghiPourZahir 1
  • Afsaneh ZamaniMoghaddam 1
  • Mohammad Reza Ardalan 2
  • parvin ghorbanian 3
1 Faculty of Management and Economics, University of Science and Research
2 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3 Head of the department of exceptional education in Hamedan Province
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Introduction: Teacher development has always been a concern of the education system because teachers are the main focus of education. New methods have been identified and introduced that will enable teachers to develop more effectively. Individual development is one of the new ways that can be used in the development of teachers and educators. This method of development helps teachers develop their own partnerships and interactions between the individual and the organization. In this way, both the individual and the organization must be prepared to enter the process of personal development. Not only preparedness but both must formulate mutual commitments and expectations in the form of an individual development plan. This is done by writing an individual development plan. A personal development plan is a document written between the teacher and the principal so that both can agree on an individual development. What is important in this agreement is the role of the teacher in executing and supporting the principal.

Aims: The present study aimed to provide a model for individual development of elementary school teachers in exceptional schools to achieve the appropriate conceptual framework and develop its theoretical and practical bases. An individual development plan is the latest human resource development method that can streamline the development process to the individual level and create understanding and alignment between the individual and the organization. Under this program, elementary teachers and their principals can develop personal development. Individual development does not mean addressing the personal level of development but represents a mutual responsibility and commitment to development. Individual development is a mutual desire for growth and development, and what it means to be individual is the individual's responsibility and commitment and desire for development. Individual development can lead to personal and professional results. So one can say that individual development is an individual responsibility, desire and commitment to development that is supported through the organization. The present study also sought to identify this issue among teachers of exceptional children. By clarifying the dimensions of individual development, it is easy to design and implement a teacher-to-teacher development plan between the role of teacher and school-based decision maker.

Method: This research has been carried out with a qualitative approach and using the method of data generation. The research participants included experts in personal development and exceptional scholars in Hamedan province, among whom 17 were selected as informers through targeted sampling, where the analyzes reached theoretical saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The interview consists of five key questions that are extracted from the identified bases of research literature. For this purpose, previous studies were reviewed and five key questions were identified. Each of the interview questions deals with one dimension of individual teacher development and tries to identify the dimensions and components of the interviewee in addition to describing each dimension. The data analysis method is coding that has been performed at three levels of open, axial, and selective. Open codes were first extracted and then coded together by common sense, then axial codes were combined with the rationale that the researcher found through the axes, thereby making selective coding the ultimate model of individual development. Exceptional teachers were formulated.

Finding: The findings showed that the individual development of exceptional teachers included six key components including individual factors (10 components including intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, locus of control, hope, self-regulation, flexibility, critical thinking, self-concept, job commitment, and foresight), developmental process. Individual (including 9 components including status recognition, identifying tasks and competencies, individual and organization understanding, targeting, resources and planning, planning, implementation, self-assessment and remediation plans); organizational factors (5 components including delegation of authority, performance management system) , Organizational support, managerial empowerment, and organizational culture; Personal development (including talent development, competence, modern training, and teamwork); personal development outcomes (including creativity, resilience, self-healing, self-esteem, self-learning, self-esteem, and self-reliance) and professional development outcomes (including four components including self-knowledge, teaching). , Commitment and professional communication). Based on these findings, teachers and schools can provide in-depth guidance on various aspects of individual development so that as teachers become educators, schools as learning organizations grow and develop gradually. What is important in individual development is attention to all these dimensions, and any dimension that is not taken into account will go beyond the function of individual development. Sometimes a teacher makes a great effort, but because the principal and the school do not support him, the result of his effort does not get anywhere. Sometimes the school provides a lot of support for the development of its teachers, but the teachers do not grow significantly. Individual development plans respond to these disparate behaviors and align teacher and school goals, so all aspects of individual development are needed.

Discussion: The core of individual development has been the process of individual development. The process of individual development has been emphasized in various researches, as Ghrbanian (2019) have pointed out in researches such as McCann (2009), Occupational Health and Wellness Organization (2017), Harish and Jackson (2016) and other research on development process. He saw someone. It is fundamentally a process perspective on the development of an individual that can be identified and applied to its implementation steps. Using individual factors, strategies can be developed to increase teachers' readiness to enter individual development. Organizational factors allow schools to gradually prepare themselves to support and support individual development. Obviously, it is the interaction of the teacher and the school that will enable development. The process of individual development will enable individual development to be carried out efficiently, and strategies outline the various ways teachers can develop individual development. Personal development outcomes help the individual develop the goal of personal development and the teacher knows where to reach. Career outcomes will also help teachers understand what aspects of career development they need to develop. Individual development requires attention to all five dimensions simultaneously because failure to pay attention to each dimension causes the individual development process to be impaired or to reduce its speed and quality. Individual development in schools and among teachers will be pervasive when both teachers and schools and principals are interested and committed to development together.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Individual development
  • teachers
  • schools of exceptional
  • qualitative approach