عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of this study was to design a competency model for secondary school principals. The method of this study was applied in terms of purpose and in terms of exploratory mixed data collection. The qualitative method was used to extract the components of the model and the quantitative method was used to validate the model. The statistical population in the qualitative section consisted of experts in the field of education and experienced principals and teachers of secondary schools in Tehran. The data collection tool in the qualitative section was semi-structured interviews that the interviewees were selected through purposeful sampling. The data from the interviews were refined and coded using the data theory theory. Finally, according to the identified themes, the components and indicators of the initial model of the research were drawn. At the quantitative stage, using the model depicted, the status of secondary school principals' competence was assessed. The research method at this stage was quantitative survey. The statistical population included all the principals of Tehran Secondary Secondary School in 1398 (868). 250 questionnaires were distributed among school principals. Based on qualitative interviews, twenty themes of competency of school principals were extracted and classified into 6 main components. The first dimension - individual competences, includes personality and value components. The second dimension - managerial competencies, has two components, namely human resources and insight and attitude. The Third Dimension: Scientific and Occupational Competence The two components of this dimension are expertise and occupation. Based on the results of the study, it was suggested that in order to achieve an effective education system, the conditions for selecting school principals should be redefined. Senior education managers consider the selection of managers for components such as managerial competencies, scientific and professional competencies, and individual competencies.
T-test was used to assess the current status of school principals' competence. The results of the one-sample t-test for the third question showed that only the managerial competencies dimension is higher than the average and desirable status; in the present situation, school principals competency, academic competencies and then individual competences relative to other dimensions , Are weaker. The results of this study are in line with the findings of Ebrahimzadeh and Nazem (1979) which found that managerial competencies had the greatest impact on school principals' choice, and the study is consistent with Abdollahi et al. (2015) and Branson (2015). Management competencies had two sub-components of insights competencies and human resources. These competencies address the managerial, perceptual, and value behaviors and characteristics of school principals. In the area of management, school management and human resources management are crucial. Most experts stated that the school administrator should be aware of all school-related activities in order to better manage the school, hold regular meetings at the school, and keep the school atmosphere calm and secure. In other words, the administrator should not allow any friction between staff and students or between staff and any unrest in the school will disrupt the relaxation and atmosphere of the organization and will result in the decentralization of staff and negatively affect the results of their activities. Lays. Some experts also pointed out that the school principal should have a clear goal and quick decision-making power.
Friedman test was used to prioritize the components of the competency model of secondary school principals in Tehran. The first component is vision and attitude. Insight is an important aspect of being creative and forward-looking, and attitude is a relatively constant way of thinking, feeling, and behaving towards individuals, groups, and societal or, to a larger extent, any incident in the individual environment. Studies have shown that managers' effectiveness is more dependent on their behavior and attitude than information and skills. Therefore, the quantity and quality of the tools and methods of work are not alone in today's situation of educational organizations. It is the managers' attitude that by breaking the dominant business models, they will enable them to provide the conditions for the success of the organization. This result is in line with Davies's (2015) results. Personality traits are a second priority for school principals. The personality of the individual is a set or combination of relatively constant behavioral, emotional, and intellectual traits that the individual manifests. Holland theory is a theory that explains the fit of a person with a job well. Other results that are consistent with the results of this study are: Hooshyar et al. (2014) and Yang & Delois (2009). Human resources are the third priority. This model states that the identification of gifted managers for schools should be done under a distinct HR architecture. The human capital that everyone organizes is divided into two areas of value and uniqueness.
Based on the results of this study, the following strategies for moving towards meritocracy in selecting high school principals are presented.
1. The findings of the study indicate that the terms of appointment of school principals do not reflect the importance and complexity of the schools as a unit of analysis, and that the task description defines school principals as observers of the activities of the school rather than the agents. Therefore, it is necessary to redefine the school principals and the conditions for selecting school principals to achieve an effective education system.
2- The Ministry of Education senior managers can use the results of this study to change the pattern of selecting secondary school principals and to use the concepts and components of the final model of this research.
3. According to the results of the present study, officials, planners and stakeholders who select school principals and deputies should select the most talented individuals as directors and deputies, and include components such as managerial competencies, scientific and specialized competencies. , Consider individual competencies.
4. To improve the competencies of managers, education system managers should regularly provide them with specialized skills workshops to promote different competencies, while enhancing the competencies of managers, improving their job and organizational performance. Of course, to design comprehensive and comprehensive programs to enhance the competencies of school principals, they should use the results of the present study along with other research.