Challenges of transformational leaders: a narrative approach

Document Type : Qualitative Research Paper

Authors

1 MA of Educational Administration, Department of Education, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Educational Administration, Department of Education, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

Purpose: The present research was conducted with the aim of expressing the challenges of transformational leaders in schools.
Method: The approach of the current research is qualitative and the strategy used is narrative research.The researched population was all school principals of Kermanshah city.Sampling was purposeful and 13 people were studied until reaching theoretical saturation. Data collection was semi-structured interview and document review. Validation in the present research was examined and confirmed based on the process of verifiability, transferability, believability and reliability.
Findings: The analysis showed that the challenges of transformational leaders in schools include different aspects. The participants reflected the challenges in the form of challenges of different definitions and perceptions, the need for capabilities and competences, and finally structural challenges, and these results were drawn in three graphs. Challenges related to the definition and characteristics include the following: common goals, planning, creating a professional work team, creating change and transformation and inspiring employees. In the challenges related to the necessary competencies of transformational leaders, we also found five main categories including: scientific support, emotional support, clear and two-way communication, organizational foresight, creating a creative and dynamic environment.In the structural challenges faced by transformational leaders, we also found four categories including: organizational issues, individual issues, socio-cultural issues and lack of resources and facilities.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Adhikari, S. (2019). Transformational leadership practices in community school. Tribhuvan University Journal, 33(1), 141-154.‏
Aggarwal, J., & Krishnan, VR. (2014). "Impact of Transformational Leadership on Follower’ s Self-Efficacy: M1oderating Role of Follower’ s Impression Management". Management and Labour Studies,12(4) 1-17.
Almutairi, O. (2013). “TheRelationship between Leadership Styles and Organizational Commitment: A Test on Saudi Arabian Airline”, Worled Review of Business Research, l (3), 41-51.
Arefnezhad, M., Sadeghi, M., & Moaeyd, M. (2022). The Effect of Moral Atmosphere on Teachers' Job Engagement, Journal of School Administration. 10(1), 140-153.
Arokiasamy, A., Abdullah, A., Ahmad, M., & Ismail, A. (2016). Transformational leadership of school principals and organizational health of primary school teachers in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 151-157.‏
Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (2004). “Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire: Manual andSampler Set (3rd ed.)”. Rewood City, Ca: Mind Garden, Inc.
Batool, B. (2013). An Empirical Study on Effect of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Commitment in the Banking Sector of Pakistan. Journal of Business and Management, 8(2), 38-44.
Darling, J., Mika, G., & Seristo, H. (2007). “Enhancing contemporary entrepreneurship: Afocus on management leadership”. European Business Review, 19(1). 4-22.
DeGroot, T., Kiker, D., & Cross, T. (2000). A meta-analysis to revieworganizational outcomes related to charismatic leadership. Canadian Journal ofAdministrative Sciences, 17 (4), 357-371.
Doci, E., & Hofmans, J. (2015). "Task complexity and transformational leadership: The mediating role of leadersstate core self-evaluations", The Leadership Quarterly, 34(2): 1-12.
Du Plessis, M., Waglay, M., & Becker, J. (2020). The role of emotional intelligence and autonomy in transformational leadership: A leader member exchange perspective. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 46(1), 1-12.‏
Eyal, O., & Kark, R. (2004). How do Transformational Leaders Transform Organizations? A Study of the Relationship between Leadership and Entrepreneurship. Leadership & Policy in Schools, 3(3), 211-235
Gardner, W., Lowe, K., Moss, T., Mahoney, K., & Cogliser, C. (2010). “Scholarly leadership of the study of leadership: A review of The Leadership Quarterly’s second decade, 2000–2009”. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 922–958. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.10.003.
Gozukara, I., & Simsek, OF. (2015). "Linking Transformational Leadership to Work Engagement and the Mediator Effect of Job Autonomy: A Study in a Turkish Private. Non-Profit University". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195(4): 963-971.
Gumus, S., Bellibas, M. S., Esen, M., & Gumus, E. (2018). A systematic review of studies on leadership models in educational research from 1980 to 2014. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(1), 25–48.
‏Hackett, R., Wang, A., Chen, Z., Cheng, B., & Farh, J. (2018). “Transformational leadership and organisational citizenship behaviour: A moderated mediation model of leader‐member‐exchange and subordinates' gender”. Applied Psychology, 67(4), 617-644.
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Reassessing the principal’s role in school effectiveness: A review of empirical research, 1980–1995. Educational Administration Quarterly, 32(1), 5–44.
Hallinger, P., & Kulophas, D. (2019). The evolving knowledge base on leadership and teacher professional learning:A bibliometric analysis of the literature, 1960-2018. Professional Development in Education, 46(4), 521–540.
Hamadani, M. (2018). Learning how to be a transformational leader through a skill-building, role-play exercise. The International Journal of Management Education, 16(1), 26-36.
Judeh, M. (2010). Transformational leadership: A study of gender differences in private universities, Proceedings of Annual London Business Research Conference, 33(5), 12-14.
Kurland, H. (2010). Leadership style and organizational learning: the mediate effect of school vision, Journal of Educational Administration, 48(1), 7-30.
Legutko, B. (2020). An exploration of authentic, servant, transactional, and transformational leadership styles in fortune 500 CEO letters. Journal of Leadership Studies, 14(2), 44-51.
Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2020). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School Leadership & Management, 40(1), 5–22.
Li, Y. (2020). “ARevie of Empirical Research on Transformational School Leadership in China (2010–2019)”. ECNU Review of Education, 2096531120942242.
Luo, W., FooSeongNg, D., Nguyen, D., Ng, P., & Salleh, H. (2020). “Transformational leadership and its relations to teacher outcomes in Singapore: Mastery goals and self-efficacy as mediators. Leadership and Policy in Schools”, 1-17.‏
Mitchell, R. (2019). “Enabling school structure & transformational school leadership: Promoting increased organizational citizenship and professional teacher behavior”. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 18(4), 614-627.‏
Motalebi Nejad, M., & Aligholi, M. (2015). Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Organizational Forgetting and its Impact on Competitiveness of Organizations. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 5(6).
Nadi, M., Keykha, A., & Rahmani Barouji, P. (2022). Reconstruction of The Role of Team Building And Teamwork on The Accepting And Creating of Organizational Changes: An Exploration of The Lived Experiences of School Administrators, Journal of School Administration, 10(4), 42-62.
Norman, B., Thomson, I., James, V., Rawson, C., & Bledsoe, M. (2016). “Transformation and Transformational Leadership: A Review of the Current and Relevant Literature for Academic Radiologists”. Academic Radiology, 23, 5: 592–599.
Ojha, D., Acharya, C., & Cooper, D. (2018). Transformational leadership and supply chain ambidexterity: Mediating role of supply chain organizational learning and moderating role of uncertainty. International Journal of Production Economics, 197, 215-231.
Parsa, A. (2007). Examining the attitudes and behavioral tendencies of teachers regarding promotio New curriculum. Quarterly Journal of Curriculum Studies. 1st (4), 103-138.
Rowold, J., & Rohmann, A. (2009). Transformational and transactionalleadership styles, followers’ positive and negative emotions, and performancein German nonprofit orchestras. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 20 (1),41-59.
Safin Munir, R., Abdul Rahman, R., Malik, A., & Maamor, H. (2012). Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Employees Job Satisfaction among the Academic Staff. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 65.
Sarshak Vaziri, S. (2004). “Investigating the effect of in-service training on growthThe quality of education of primary teachers in Isfahan city”, Master of Science thesiseducational Faculty of Educational Sciences. Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan.
Van Putten, P. (2009). “The Relationship between Psychological Capital and Social Venture Program Initiation”, A Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Lynn University