Challenges of transformational leaders: a narrative approach

Document Type : Qualitative Research Paper


1 MA of Educational Administration, Department of Education, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Educational Administration, Department of Education, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran


Purpose: The present research was conducted with the aim of expressing the challenges of transformational leaders in schools.
Method: The approach of the current research is qualitative and the strategy used is narrative research.The researched population was all school principals of Kermanshah city.Sampling was purposeful and 13 people were studied until reaching theoretical saturation. Data collection was semi-structured interview and document review. Validation in the present research was examined and confirmed based on the process of verifiability, transferability, believability and reliability.
Findings: The analysis showed that the challenges of transformational leaders in schools include different aspects. The participants reflected the challenges in the form of challenges of different definitions and perceptions, the need for capabilities and competences, and finally structural challenges, and these results were drawn in three graphs. Challenges related to the definition and characteristics include the following: common goals, planning, creating a professional work team, creating change and transformation and inspiring employees. In the challenges related to the necessary competencies of transformational leaders, we also found five main categories including: scientific support, emotional support, clear and two-way communication, organizational foresight, creating a creative and dynamic environment.In the structural challenges faced by transformational leaders, we also found four categories including: organizational issues, individual issues, socio-cultural issues and lack of resources and facilities.


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