Designing a quality process model for implementing school management excellence program

Document Type : Qualitative Research Paper


1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته مدیریت آموزشی، گروه علوم تربیتی، واحد اردبیل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اردبیل، ایران.

2 گروه علوم تربیتی، واحد اردبیل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اردبیل، ایران


School excellence" is derived from organizational excellence and a new subject. Because this issue is older outside Iran, various researches have been done in this field, but in Iran, due to its infancy, not much research is observed, and it does not have the necessary support for field studies and is a model for quality. Implementation has not been presented, and the results of research emphasize the need for field-based research One of the issues that is felt in the implementation of the school excellence program in Iran is that; Stakeholder participation in the implementation of the school excellence program does not exceed the level of student participation in the implementation of extracurricular activities and cooperation with educators in educational matters. The role of parents is especially marginalized in the quality of teaching and learning of students. Therefore, in the current situation, the realization of the idea of a school-centered approach with a bottom-up approach has no place in the school management excellence program. In recent years, many speculations have been made about this program and based on it, amendments have been made to the way of implementing and changing the evaluation indicators.These actions are often aimed at redefining and shifting the criteria and indicators rather than reflecting on its intellectual and theoretical foundations. This is while the effective school literature of regular and accurate efforts, especially problem-oriented and context-oriented, as well as the joint cooperation of policy makers and educational researchers in providing different models of effectiveness and their effective role in forming new intellectual waves in this The constituency tells. The effective and transcendent school is a context-dependent phenomenon. The characteristics of the situation in which the school is culturally, socially, politically, economically, and demographically located essentially overshadow its inputs, processes, and outputs, and this is at odds with the effectiveness of the excellence program. It seems that the necessary groundwork has not been done in terms of manpower training, space, facilities and equipment, all-round efforts of the trustees in planning and proper implementation of the process-oriented program. Therefore, considering this importance, the purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting the process of implementing the school management excellence program, in order to identify the prerequisites and underlying factors and to provide practical solutions to improve the quality of the excellence program implementation.The main purpose of this study was to identify the effective factors and provide operational model on the performance of school management excellence program. In this research qualitative approach was used by using grounded theory method. Also, 20 supervisors and executives of excellence program were selected by purposeful sampling based on saturation principle. In the data collection, semi - structured interview tools were employed. In order to analyze the data, a systematic coding method has been used in three steps (open coding, axial and selective coding) and the categories that form different parts of the model were grouped into six dimensions. In this study, the coding results show that 550 propositions in describing the perception of observers and implementers are effective factors and requirements of the excellence program. By abstracting concepts and categories from data and classifying similarities based on conceptual relevance and theoretical studies, the reports were summarized into 90 conceptual spectra, 36 sub-categories, and 11 main categories. During the three codings: open coding (OC), axial coding (AC) and selective coding (SC), "quality of program execution" was identified as the central phenomenon of the research. Finally, all categories related to the central phenomenon were organized in five axes (causal, contextual, intervening, strategic and consequential factors).The results of data analysis showed that the quality of implementation of excellence program is influenced by causal factors such as the status of financial and human resources of schools and the amount of effort by the authorities in planning and implementing excellence program. It can also be facilitated by devising desirable strategies such as human resources training, organizational health, and teacher effectiveness, which include contextual factors such as organizational culture, parenting role and environmental factors, and intervening conditions such as; The management and leadership style and characteristics of the principal are influenced, and ultimately, the implementation of the excellence program leads to outcomes such as program-based, self-assessment, school-based and comprehensive quality at school.­ Considering the emphasis of the Fundamental Transformation Document on improving school management and achieving the appearance of the school in the horizon of Vision 1404, it is suggested that further study be done on the underlying factors affecting the quality of the excellence program and using the findings of this study. In order to be more effective, trustees should evaluate the school's contextual factors for implementing the program and, if the necessary contexts are not available, focus their actions on providing the prerequisites. Because implementation without bedding does not lead to a significant increase in school performance and, except for wasting resources, the goals of the excellence program will not be achieved. Considering the effective role of school principals in the implementation of the program, it is suggested that the appointment of qualified principals be done in accordance with the identified personality traits and managerial knowledge and skills, and that the training of principals be given priority. Also, education stakeholders should improve the method of implementing the program and evaluate the performance of schools in accordance with the type and conditions of the school, and also use the research findings as facilitators to educate and justify the executive agents of the excellence program in special sessions and workshops. Finally, with proper training and explanation, trustees and agents should have a process-oriented approach to the program to monitor the effectiveness of the program during the academic year during the implementation and to remove obstacles to implementation.


Aldaihani, S. G. ( 2014). “School Excellence Model in Public Schools in the State of Kuwait: A  Proposed Model”. Journal of  Education and Practice, 5(34), 126-132.
  Baniasad, S., Hossein Gholizadeh, R., & Amin Khandagi, M. (2017).“From Effectiveness to Excellence: Gap Theory, Research and Practice in the School Management Excellence Program”. Journal of the  Foundations of Education, 7(2), 148-124. (Persian).
    Bazargan, A. (2017). Introduction to Qualitative and Mixed Research Methods; Common Approaches in Behavioral Sciences. Sixth Edition. Tehran: Didar. (Persian).
  Bruno-Jofré, R., & Hills, G. (2011). “Changing Visions of Excellence    in  Ontario School Policy: The Cases of Living and Learning and for the  Love of Learning”. Educational Theory, 61(3), 335-349.   
  Calvo-Mora, A., Leal, A., & Rolda´n, J.L. (2006). “Using enablers of the EFQM model to manage institutions of higher education”. Quality Assurance in Education, 14(2), 99 – 122.
Choo, A. S., Linderman, K. W., & Schroeder, R. G. (2007). “Method and Context Perspectives on Learning and Knowledge Creation in Quality Management”. Journal of Operations Management, 25, 918–931. 
   Creswell, J. w. (2009). Research design; qualitative, quantitative, and Mixed approaches. Translated by Kiamanesh, A. & Danaei, M. (2015).  Third edition. Tehran: Academic Jihad Publishers. (Persian).
  Davies, J., Hides, M.T., & Casey, S. (2001). “Leadership in Higher Education”.  Total Quality Management, 12 (7/8), 1025-1030.
Díez, F.(2018). “Quality management in schools: Analysis of  mediating factors”. South African Journal of Education, 38(2) , 1-8.
Dulatkhah, A. (2015). “Investigating the Relationship between  Organizational Culture and Organizational Excellence from the  Perspectives of Managers of Ardabil Education Department”, Masters  Thesis, Azam rastguo, Islamic Azad University of Ardabil. (Persian).
      Farasatkhah, M. (2017). Research Methodology in Social Sciences with Emphasis on Grounded Theory (GTM). fourth edition. Tehran: Agah. (Persian).
  Greb, W. (2011). Principal leadership and student achievement: What is the effect of transformational leadership in conjunction with instructional leadership on student achievement? (Doctoral dissertation, Marian University).
Hallinger, P.,  & Heck, R. (1996). “Reassessing the principal’s role in school  effectiveness: A review of empirical research, 1980-1995”. Educational  Administration Quarterly, 32(1), 5-44.
Karimi, S., & Nasr, A. (2013). “Interview data analysis methods. Quarterly Journal of Cutie for Research in Humanities. 4(1), 71-94. (Persian).
  Lador, I.I. (2010). “Research Trends, Focused on Excellence in the Fundamental Field of Science Physical Education and Sports”.  Gymnasium: Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 11(2), 6-14.
   Loomba, A. P., & Johannessen, T. B. (1997). “Malcolm baldrige national quality award, Critical issues and inherent values”. Benchmarking for quality management and technology, 4(1), 59-77.
  Malik, A., Sinha, A., & Blumenfeld, S. (2012). “Role of Quality Management Capabilities in Developing Market-based Organisational  Learning Capabilities: Case Study Evidence from Four Indian Business Processoutsourcing Firms”. Industrial Marketing Management, 41, 639– 648.
      Masri, M.W. (2009). “Policy Process and Education Reform in the Arab World”. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, 14(1), 129-144.
   Ng, P.T., & Chan, D. (2008). “A Comparative Study of Singapore’s School Excellence Model with Hong Kong’s School-Based Management”. International Journal of Educational Management, 22(6), 488-505.
Reynolds, D., Sammons, P., De Fraine, B., Van Damme, J., Townsend, T., Teddlie, C., & Stringfield, S. (2014). Educational effectiveness research (EER): a    state-of-the-art review. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 25(2), 197-230. 
Riahi, B. (2006). “Evaluating  Organization Performance Based on Organizational Excellence Model”. Administrative Transformation  Quarterly, 3(47), 23-65. (Persian).
  Sergiovanni, T. J. (2007). Leadership and excellence in schooling. Rethinking leadership: A collection of articles, 5.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (2016). Fundamentals of QualitativeResearch:Techniques and Processes of The stages of producing the Grounded Theory. Translated  by Ebrahim Afshar. Tehran: Ney. (Persian).
  Zeinabadi, H.R., & Abdul Husseini, B. (2017). “Successful School,   Successful Principal, a Comparative Study of the Findings of an International  Successful School Principal Project”. Journal of Educational Innovation, 16(61), 21-42. (Persian).