Identifying the Development Indicators of Sports Education in Iranian Schools

Document Type : Mixed Method Research Paper


1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت ورزشی، واحد کرمانشاه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه مدیریت ورزشی، واحد کرمانشاه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه مدیریت ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه، کرمانشاه، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه مدیریت ورزشی، واحد سنندج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سنندج، ایران.


Development has different dimensions compared to growth and is comprehensive. A developed society is a society that is developed in all fields, although societies may be in the process of development from different dimensions such as economic, scientific and educational, political, cultural, etc. Prioritize some dimension. Naturally, one of the important dimensions of development is the category of education. Physical Education is one of the educational courses in schools. In fact, one of the classrooms that students attend with motivation is the physical education classrooms. The role of physical education as one of the factors providing the physical and mental health of the student community It is obvious. Thus, a basic physical education program is able, while ensuring the physical and mental health of students, by creating favorable conditions for cultivating their potential talents, to lead to the development and dynamism of the country. Lack of development of primary school sports has closed the way for the development of public and championship sports, and by examining the obstacles, all officials and policy makers should try to remove them. However, so far no research has been conducted to identify the indicators of the development of sports education in schools. Therefore, the present study intends to identify the indicators of the development of sports education in Iranian schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the indicators of the development of sports education in Iranian schools.
This was done by conducting qualitative research of the grand theory type, the method of which is exploratory. In this study, through literature review and exploratory interviews to identify the indicators of development of sports education in Iranian schools from the method derived from data and in the method of grand theory (coding of analysis unit, categories and registration unit) analyzed. it placed. To conduct the field interview, the research participants include prominent professors in the field of sports management specializing in the field of school sports, as well as managers of the Physical Education Organization of the Ministry of Education. Was selected (12 interviews with 11 people and continued until theoretical saturation). The criterion for selecting the research samples was the level of expertise in school sports and the level of involvement in school sports decision-making. After analyzing the literature and to complete the indicators of development of sports education in Iranian schools, 11 participants were interviewed to complete the list of indicators of development of sports education in Iranian schools. One of the interviewees (first person interviewee) was interviewed twice because in the first interview, there were some issues from the interviewee's point of view that were tried to be corrected in the re-interview. Also, no new data was obtained from the eighth interview, but to be sure, it continued until the interview with the eleventh person. Before conducting the interview, along with the interview questions, a letter was sent signed by the researcher stating that he / she has a moral obligation to maintain the contents of the interview and the details of the participants and not to publish it. Also, with the knowledge of the participants, all interviews were recorded and reviewed to extract key points. After announcing the agreement, interviews were held with the focus on perception, perception and indicators to identify the indicators of the development of sports education in Iranian schools and the most important indicators. In the interviews, the respondents commented on the question of presenting a new component or index or approving the collected components and indicators. The validity of this study was reviewed and confirmed by the interviewees and then expert professors. Reliability was obtained by using the process study audit method of 70.3% results. For data analysis, continuous comparison method was used during the three stages of open, axial and selective coding. The results of the descriptive part related to the demographic characteristics of the study showed that 9.1% had less than 5 years, 36.4% had 6 to 10 years and 54.5% had more than 10 years. It was also found that 54.5% were university professors and 45.5% were the directors of physical education departments in the country. Finally, it was found that 18.2% were female and 81.8% were male. Data analysis showed that 27 concept codes and 5 main categories (sports facilities, sports teacher, finance, championship, sports centers), are the most important indicators of the development of sports education in Iranian schools. According to the results of the present study, it is suggested that schools use the indicators derived from this study in order to measure the development of their sports education so that they can have a correct evaluation of their performance. Modares Iran's sports facilities should be uniformly distributed in all regions of the country and the new places that are being built should have all the existing criteria and standards to ensure the safety and health of students in sports. In the cold regions of the country, indoor sports facilities should be built in schools. Use up-to-date, professional and ready sports teachers to teach physical education. New teachers entering education should have appropriate qualifications and up-to-date teachers who have already been employed in education, using their in-service training, skills and knowledge. To be. Ongoing evaluations of physical education teachers should be conducted throughout the year, and education directors should give special privileges to teachers who achieve the highest scores in this evaluation.


Arabshahi, A. (2017). Determining the development degree of Hormozgan provinces based on ducational indicators. Hormozgam Cultural Journal, 13, 113-133. [in Persian].
Bahrami, Sh., Ghobadi, B., & Mohammadi, Sh. (2019). Investigating the complication of exercise in schools in deprived areas of the country using weissbord model. Journal of School Administration, 8 (3), 129-111. [in Persian].
Bazargan, A. (2018). An introduction to qualitative and mixed research methods: common approaches in the behavioral sciences. Didar publication, 27. [in Persian].
Breuer, C., Hallmann, K., Wicker, P., & Feiler, S. (2010). Socio-economic patterns of sport demand and ageing. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 7(2), 61-70.‏
Chen, S., & Xiao, R.  (2017). Influence factors and strategies of teacher-student interactive behaviors in sports class teaching. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13 (10), 7025-7036.
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A.  (2008). Basics of qualitative research 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage Publications, 158.
De Bosscher, V., De Knop, P., Van Bottenburg, M., & Shibli, S. (2006). A conceptual framework for analysing sports policy factors leading to international sporting success. European Sport Management Quarterly, 6(2), 185-215.‏
Farahani, A., Keshavarz, L., & Sadeghi, A. (2016). Developing strategies for developing Iranian championship sports. Applied Research in Sport Management, 5(3), 125-140. [in Persian].
Fullan, L. (2018). The management of sport (Its foundation and application). Temple University, 125.
Ghanbari Firoozabadi, A., Amani, A., Reyhani, M., & Sardrudian, M. (2019). Designing a strategic model for the development of student sports education in schools in North Khorasan province, Journal of Research in Educational Sports, Articles in Ready for Publication, Digital Identification (DOI): 10.22089 / RES.2020.7838.1732. [in Persian].
Ghanbari, H., Shetab Bushehri, N., Shafi Nia, P., & Mehr Alizadeh, Y. (2018). Pathology of physical education and school sports using the three-horn model. Research in Educational Sports, 6 (15), 60-149. [in Persian].
Ha, J. P., Lee, K., & Ok, G. (2015). From development of sport to development through sport: A paradigm shift for sport development in South Korea. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 32(10), 1262-1278.‏
Hashemi, S. (2015). Identify barriers to the development of basic sports schools of Tehran. (Unpublished master's thesis). Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran. [in Persian].
Hebert, J. J., Moller, N. C., & Andersen, L. B.  (2015). Organized sport participation is associated with higher levels of overall health-related physical activity in children (CHAMPS study-DK). PLoS One; 10 (8),110-135.
Hills, A., Dengel, D., & Lubans, D. (2015). Supporting public health priorities: Recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 57(4), 368- 374.
Hogan, A., & Stylianou, M. (2018). School-based sports development and the role of NSOs as ‘boundary spanners’: benefits, disbenefits and unintended consequences of the Sporting Schools policy initiative. Sport, Education and Society, 23(4), 367-380.‏
Husain, M. Z., Hasan, A., Wahab, N. B. A., & Jantan, J. (2015). Determining Teaching Effectiveness for Physical Education Teacher. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 733–740. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.426
Ismaili, A. (2013). Introduction of indicators and evaluation process of sports development in Fars province, end of master's degree, Al-Zahra University of Tehran. [in Persian].
Juan, W. U.  (2013). The study on the development of physical education in China. 2nd International Conference on Science and Social Research (ICSSR 2013).
Kalsoom, Q., & Khanam, A. (2017). Inquiry into sustainability issues by preservice teachers: A pedagogy to enhance sustainability consciousness. Journal of Cleaner Production, 164, 1301-1311.
Karasul. J. (2017). Qualitative dynamics and research design: choosing from five approaches (Narrative tudies, phenomenology, fundamental data theory, ethnography, case study). Translated by: Danaifard, Hassan, Eshraqi Publications. 56. [in Persian].
Kaur, A., & Kaur, S. (2020). Innovative practices in physical education and sports development in Khalsa college, amritsar: A decisive study. Studies in Indian Place Names, 40(60), 3464-3471.‏
Levermore, R. (2008). Sport: a new engine of development?. Progress in Development Studies, 8(2), 183-190.
Mahamadpor, H,. & Tabatbaee, S. M. (2015). The position of education in sustainable urban development. Journal of Urban Economics and Management. 3(10), 111-125. [in Persian].
Maleki, S., Ahmadi, R., & Torabi, Z. (2013). Leveling educational development in Khuzestan provinces. Educational Planning Studies Bi-annual. 2(4), 167-197. [in Persian].
McCartney, G., Hanlon, P., & Bond, L. (2013). How will the 2014 Commonwealth Games impact on Glasgow’s health, and how will we know?. Evaluation, 19(1), 24-39.‏
Niu, J.  (2017). The present situation and the development research of sports teaching in China's colleges and universities. 2017 International Conference on Advanced Education, Psychology and Sports Science.
Nousheen, A., Yousuf Zai, S. A., Waseem, M., & Khan, S. A. (2019). Education for sustainable development (ESD): Effects of sustainability education on pre-service teachers’ attitude towards sustainable development (SD). Journal of Cleaner Production, 119537.
Omidi Ghanbari, R., & Derakhshan, N. (2017). Analysis of factors influencing quality of physical education course in secondary schools from the perspective of sport teachers. 3rd Iranian National Conference on Sport Science and Physical Education. [in Persian].
Quennerstedt, M. (2008). Physical education in Sweden a national evaluation. School of Health and Medical science. Orebro University, educate online; 1-17.
Ramezani Nejad, R. (2017). Physical education in schools. Samat Publications, Eleventh Edition. [in Persian].
Ramezani Nejad, R., Hejbari, K., Eidi, H., Reyhani, M., & Asgari, B. (2015). Elite sports management "Successful Country Experiences". Sustainable North Publishing, First Edition. [in Persian].
Renshaw, I., & Chow, J. Y. (2019). A constraint-led approach to sport and physical education pedagogy. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 24(2), 103-116.‏
Ridley, K., Zabeen, S., & Lunnay, B. K. (2018). Children’s physical activity levels during organized sports practices. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21 (9), 930–934. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2018.01.019
Safari, A., Abdollahi, B., & Sabouri, F. (2019). The impact of collaboration between school teachers on improving the quality of the teaching-learning process. Journal of School Administration, 7 (3), 331-350.
Soltanhoseni, M., Shamsi, A., & Amiri,. M. (2018). Measuring the levels of development and inequalities of sport areas in Isfahan provinces using taxonomy model. National Conference on Modern Research in Sport Sciences, Isfahan, and Permanent Secretariat of the Conference. [in Persian].
Tomas, L., Girgenti, S., & Jackson, C. (2017). Pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward education for sustainability and its relevance to their learning: implications for pedagogical practice. Environmental Education Research, 23(3), 324-347.
Tsangaridou, N. (2017). Early childhood teachers views about teaching physical education: challenges and recommendations. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 22(3), 283-300.
Vafaee, A., Fakhri, F., & Jafari. M. (2018). Investigating barriers to school sport development in Mazandaran province. Journal of Sport Management and Motor Behavior, 14(28), 167-182. [in Persian].
Wang, R.  (2017). Research on physical education problems and management reform of Chinese colleges and universities. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13 (10), 7057–7069.