Model of Secondary School Principals Competency in Tehran

Document Type : Mixed Method Research Paper


1 دانشیار گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، ، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

5 دانشجوی دکتری، مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران


Organizations inherently need people to identify them and carry out activities through them. The most important element in achieving organizational goals is management. The role of competent and capable managers in the performance of organizations has expanded to the point that they have considered management science as one of the most important and complex fields of humanities and have called the twentieth century the era of management and today's world the world of knowledgeable managers. One of the most important steps to realize the potential capabilities of human resources is to put people in the right position with their abilities, experiences and capabilities. Such a view of manpower as the most deserving person in the most appropriate job position. Managers, as the main decision-makers in the face of organizational problems, play a decisive role in the success or even failure of the organization.
The purpose of this study was to design a competency model for secondary school principals. The method of this study was applied in terms of purpose and in terms of exploratory mixed data collection. The qualitative method was used to extract the components of the model and the quantitative method was used to validate the model. The statistical population in the qualitative section consisted of experts in the field of education and experienced principals and teachers of secondary schools in Tehran. The data collection tool in the qualitative section was semi-structured interviews that the interviewees were selected through purposeful sampling. The data from the interviews were refined and coded using the data theory theory. Finally, according to the identified themes, the components and indicators of the initial model of the research were drawn. At the quantitative stage, using the model depicted, the status of secondary school principals' competence was assessed. The research method at this stage was quantitative survey. The statistical population included all the principals of Tehran Secondary Secondary School in 1398 (868). 250 questionnaires were distributed among school principals. Based on qualitative interviews, twenty themes of competency of school principals were extracted and classified into 6 main components. The first dimension - individual competences, includes personality and value components. The second dimension - managerial competencies, has two components, namely human resources and insight and attitude. The Third Dimension: Scientific and Occupational Competence The two components of this dimension are expertise and occupation. Based on the results of the study, it was suggested that in order to achieve an effective education system, the conditions for selecting school principals should be redefined. Senior education managers consider the selection of managers for components such as managerial competencies, scientific and professional competencies, and individual competencies.
The purpose of this study was to design a competency model for secondary school principals. In the qualitative stage, by conducting semi-structured interviews with experts, twenty themes (indicators) were extracted for the competency model of school principals, which were categorized into 6 components. Finally, the components were placed in a more general classification consisting of three dimensions. The components are as follows:
First dimension; Individual competencies include personality and value components. The personality component is manifested in three codes: the power to influence teachers and students, acceptance among co-workers, and beauty.
Second dimension; Managerial competencies have two components called human resource letters and insight and attitude. Their characteristics are: forming working groups, establishing effective communication with students and teachers, and motivating the human resources component; Purposefulness, positive thinking and creative thinking for the component of insight and attitude.
Third dimension; Scientific and professional competencies are the two components of this dimension, specialization and professionalism. Having knowledge of educational management, management of equipment and physical resources, passing management training courses; There are specialized indicators. Having problem-solving and decision-making skills, gaining the support and assistance of key stakeholders, ongoing communication with parents and identifying their expectations, teacher experience and managerial experience at school; Are job indicators.
T-test was used to assess the current status of school principals. The results of one-sample t-test for the third question showed that only the dimension of managerial competencies is higher than the value (average) and in a favorable condition; In the current situation, the competency model of school principals, academic competencies and then individual competencies are weaker than other dimensions.
Prioritization of the components of the competency model of secondary school principals in the second year of Tehran is as follows, the first component is insight and attitude. Insight is an important aspect of being creative and forward-looking, and attitude is a relatively fixed way of thinking, feeling, and behaving toward individuals, groups, and social issues, or more broadly, any incident in the individual environment.
Inferring from the results of this study, the following strategies are presented to move towards meritocracy in the selection of secondary school principals.
Findings show that the conditions of appointment of school principals do not reflect the importance and complexity of schools as a unit of analysis, and the job description defines school principals as supervisors of the activities of school members, not agents. Therefore, it is necessary to redefine the school principal and the conditions for selecting school principals in order to achieve an effective educational system.
Senior managers of the Ministry of Education can use the results of this study to change the pattern of selection of secondary school principals and use the concepts and components of the final model of this study.
According to the results of the present study, officials, planners and those who select school principals and deputies should select the most talented people as principals and deputies, and in their selection, components such as managerial competencies, scientific and professional competencies, competencies Consider individual.
In order to improve the competencies of managers, the officials of the educational system should continuously hold specialized training workshops for them to improve various competencies in order to improve the professional and organizational performance of managers while increasing their competencies. Of course, in order to design codified and comprehensive programs to improve the competencies of school principals, they should use the results of the present study along with other researches.


Abbaspour, A., Rahimian, H., Delavar, A., Ghiasi Nodooshan, S., & Hashemian, F. (2017). Development of managers of National Iranian Gas Company based on competency model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 13 (43), 59-73 [Persian].
Adli, F., & Varkani, A. M. (2018). School Principals Understand the Nature and Function of Their Professional and Professional. School Management, 6(2), 19-39 [Persian].
Ahanchian, M. R., & Babadi, A. (2013). Preparation and Validation of a Questionnaire to Evaluate the Performance of University Department Managers, Education and Learning Research, 2(3), 147-162 [Persian].
Ahmadi, A. A., Darvish, H., Sobhanifar, J., & Fazli Kobria, H. (2013). Modeling human resource competencies based on the teachings of Nahj al-Balagheh: A case study of human resource competencies in Imam Sadegh (AS) University, Management of Government Organizations, 2(1), 83-108 [Persian].
Armstrong, M. (2006). Human Resources Management .Translated by Hossein Pahlavanian, Seyed Mehdi Mir Mohseni Zavarah & Jamshid Komai. (2008). Yazd: Niko Roush Publications [Persian].
Assari, N., Siadat, S. A., Abedini, Y., & Monjemi, S. H. (2018). Multi-Fuzzy Decision Modeling For Selecting School Principals Based on Managerial Competency Criteria in Isfahan Education. Research in Educational Systems, 12 [Persian].
Babaei Zakili, M. A., & Sheikh, E. (2011) Manual of Managers 'Development: A Collection of Cultural Definitions and Wisdoms and Methods of Developing Managers' Competencies, Institute for Productivity and Human Resources Studies, Saramad Publications, 135-152 [Persian].
Bakhtiari, A., Salimi, A., & Najaf, B. (2013). Investigating the Effectiveness Characteristics of Public High School Principals in Tehran and Presenting an Appropriate Strategy, Research in Educational Systems, 7(23), 154-176.
Brunson, M. A. (2015). Technology leadership competencies for elementary principals. Bowie State University.
Cothern, T. L. (2014). Professional Development of School Principals and Policy Implementation: Southeastern Louisiana University.
Creswell, J., & Plano Clark, V. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Davis I., & Bernard Sydnor. (2015). a Comparative Study of Leadership Characteristics of Virginia Regional Technical Center Principals. Virginia Tech.
Ebrahimzadeh, B., & Nazim, F. (2018). Identifying and compiling effective components on the competency model of primary school principals in Tehran. Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 12(4), 9-23.
Farahbakhsh, S., Sarabi, M., Kamri, E., Gholami, M., & Moradi, S. (2016). Development of scientific-professional competencies of primary school principals in Lorestan province. Journal of School Management, 5(1), 113-127.
Ferris, J. M., & Graddy, E. A. (2006). Why do nonprofits merge, unpublished manuscript, Los Angeles, CA.
Fisher, C. J. (2000). Like it or not...culture matters. Employment Relations Today, Summer, 43-52.
Fouad, N. A., Grus, C. L., Hatcher, R. L., Kaslow, N. J., Hutchings, P. S., Madson, M. B., & Crossman, R. E. (2009). Competency benchmarks: A model for understanding and measuring competence in professional psychology across training levels. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4S), S5.
Gilham, B. (2009). Research Interview. Translated by Mahmoud Abdullahzadeh. (2010). Tehran: Cultural Research Office, Second Edition [Persian].
Heritage B., Pollock C., & Roberts L. (2014). Validation of the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. 9(3).
Hislop, D. (2013). Knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction. Oxford University Press.
Homayoun, N. (2006). Education in Iran: Cultural Research Office [Persian].
Jianping, X., & Houcan, Z. (2006). Competency Model of Primary and Secondary School Teachers: A Study of Behavioral Event Interviews [J]. Educational Research, 1(011).
LI, M. F., & LU, X. J. (2004). Research on competency and competency modeling [J]. Journal of Dalian University of Technology (social sciences), 1.
Mirabile, R. J. (1997). Everything you wanted to know about competency modeling. Training & development, 51(8), 73-78.
Mohammadi, M., & Ardestani, M. (2014). Education and Development in Human Resource Management, the First International Symposium on Management Sciences with a Focus on Sustainable Development, Tehran, Center for Strategies for Achieving Sustainable Development,  [Persian].
Mostakmoli, Z., Ahanchian, M. R., & Hosseinghlizadeh, R. (2019). A Comparative Study of Responsible Institutions and the Professional Competency Assessment System of School Principals in Iran, Malaysia and the United States: Lessons for the Iranian Education System. School Management, 7(3), 213-234 [Persian].
Noe, R. A., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2008). Human resource management .New York: mc grawhill.
Peters, T. J., Waterman, J., & Robert, H. (1982). In search of excellence: Lessons from America's best-run companies. New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers.
Rashid, F. (2016). Testing research hypotheses by modeling structural equations. Tehran: Sociologists [Persian].
Robbins, S. (2006). Organizational Behavior (Concepts, Theories, Applications). Translated by Ali Parsaiyan and Seyed Mohammad Aarabi. (2013). Tehran: Cultural Research Office, 16th edition [Persian].
Rodolfa, E., Bent, R., Eisman, E., Nelson, P., Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(4), 347.
Shabani, ‌R., Khorshidi, A., Abbasi‌Sruk, ‌L., & Fathi Vargah, ‌K. (2018). Providing a competency model for primary school principals in Tehran. Educational Studies, 19(7), 145-176 [Persian].
Shi, K., Wang, J., & Li, C. (2002). Assessment on competency model of senior managers. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 34(03), 86-91.
Singer, M. (1996). Methods of Evaluating Employee Performance. Translated by Gholam Ali Sarmad. (2002). Economics, Cooperation, 29, 68-70 [Persian].
Taheri, S., Farrokhi, N. A., Borjali, A., & Abbaspour, A. (2017). Explaining the role of individual and organizational components of employees in order to develop a model for promotion and appointment to middle management with emphasis on competency (Case study: National Iranian Oil Company). Educational Measurement Quarterly, 7(27), 21-43 [Persian].
Van Wart, M. (2013). Leadership in public organizations (2 Sharpe. nded). New York, NY: M. E.
Zhang, L., Min, L., & Fang, Y. (2006). A Human Resources Management Model Based on Competency. Journal of Northeastern University (Social Science), 1.
Volume 8, Issue 2
May 2020
Pages 278-246
  • Receive Date: 23 January 2020
  • Revise Date: 06 February 2020
  • Accept Date: 18 February 2020
  • First Publish Date: 21 June 2020