The understanding and experience of school teachers from the concept of professional capital is a phenomenological study

Document Type : Qualitative Research Paper


1 استادیار مدیریت آموزشی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران


In the last decade, the mass production approach, which has been the dominant organizational model in most of the world, has affected not only production and industry but also education; As this approach has provided the basis of most of the current training methods. But today, on the one hand, changes in information technology and education, globalization and instability, diversity of needs and expectations of learners, rapid change, the need for schools to respond and the social-moral responsibility of schools to society have created conditions that mass production approach over decades Used in the past in education, they are not suitable to meet the economic, political and social expectations of the current education system (Ground and Abbaspour, 2012). Hence, the increase in change and expansion of international relations has created challenges for human beings that warn of the need for continuous updating of knowledge and knowledge, especially in the education system. In a knowledge-based society, the main pillar of development, It is a cultured and wise manpower headed by a teacher (Niaz Azari, Ismailishad and Rabii, 2011). Hargreaves and Fullen argue that there must be professional capital to invest in transformational education and training. Countries and societies that value professional capital know that the cost of education is a long-term investment in human capital development from childhood to adulthood. And it rewards economic productivity and social cohesion in the next generation. A significant part of this investment depends on the quality of teachers and how they teach. In this view, the professional capitalist view of teaching assumes that: Good teaching is technically complex and difficult, good teaching requires a high level of training and long courses, good teaching is complemented by continuous progress, good teaching includes است is a wise judgment based on evidence and experience. Good teaching is a collective achievement and responsibility (Hargreaves, 2012).
Developments in the world's educational systems, especially in the field of teacher education, require participation in professional development (human capital), group support (social capital), and provide an opportunity for judgment (decision capital). Kritz et al, 2014). Creating an environment in which these elements are present and correlated can promote a positive response to these reforms with teachers, resulting in teacher job satisfaction (Critz & co-worker, 2014). Proper implementation of professional capital in schools also leads to social justice in the education system, so that the link between research shows that supportive work environments are associated with the growth of students' academic achievement (Johnson & co-worker, 2012). Principals influence student achievement by creating environments that support teachers and are effective for student learning (Johnson & co-worker, 2012).
according to imprtance of subject The aim of this study is for primary school teachers to understand the concept of professional capital. Despite many backgrounds on the constituent elements of professional capital (human, social, decision-making capital) and its importance in the education system, especially education, but the number of quality work in this field is very small and no research has been conducted in the country as teachers' professional capital. . Therefore, there is a double need to seek the level of teachers' understanding due to the importance of teachers' professional capital and the positive impact on students' academic achievement, and necessary measures should be taken to improve it.
 Therefore, in this study, we try to answer these questions:
1. What is the teachers' perception of the concept of professional capital?
2- What are the benefits of having professional capital in teaching and education from the teachers' point of view?
3. What are the challenges or obstacles teachers face in applying professional capital in school?
The research approach is qualitative and interpretive phenomenology. Semi-structured interviews have been used to collect data. Our research population was all primary school teachers in Sanandaj who had more than 5 years of teaching experience. The approach of this qualitative research is of interpretive phenomenology. This research is in an interpretive direction. The researcher's goal of interpretive phenomenology is to gain an understanding of complex situations. The field of research in this study is all primary school teachers in Sanandaj, which was interviewed using 13 teachers using purposeful sampling method. Of these, 8 were women and 5 were men with 5 to 29 years of teaching experience. The criterion for continuing the research was to achieve theoretical saturation. Semi-structured interview method was used to collect the required data. During the interview, the interview begins with questions that are relatively neutral and is followed by more important questions. The duration of each interview was between 60 and 75 minutes. Data analysis was performed using open, axial and selective coding. In this research, nvivo qualitative data analysis software has been used to determine the codes. Our findings show that this knowledge sharing does not exist among colleagues, especially experienced teachers. Reasons for not sharing knowledge among colleagues can be structural and normative barriers. Structurally, teachers spend little time sharing knowledge and ideas, as well as reviewing their teaching. It has been mentioned in the discouraging culture of some schools.
Based on the results of the research, the participants were well acquainted with its components, namely human capital, social capital and decision-making capital. In general, the findings indicated the fact that in terms of participants, professional capital and its presence among teachers can lead to students 'academic achievement and empowerment among teachers and their job satisfaction, but there were obstacles to professional capital that led to problems in the development of teachers' professions. It becomes. From the participants' point of view, there is no knowledge sharing between teachers, especially the sharing of knowledge between experienced teachers and inexperienced teachers, and this may be due to the culture of schools and teachers. Another reason that could be raised, and participants pointed out, was that school principals create unhealthy competition for teachers, which can be a major barrier to engagement and professional capital. Reasons for not sharing knowledge among colleagues include structural and normative barriers. Structurally, teachers spend little time sharing knowledge and ideas, as well as reviewing their teaching, and normatively, our findings point to that.


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