عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study aims to provide an educational management model for exceptional schools based on the lived experience of principals. This research is a qualitative phenomenological study. The method of data collection was semi-structured interview and the sampling procedure was saturated snowball sampling. In this study, from the lived experience of exceptional school principals, interviews were conducted with 8 school principals on the sidelines of the gathering Based on the research findings, the components of educational management in exceptional schools include interaction with colleagues, monitoring of human resources, ability to manage financial issues, ability to interact with relevant organs, understanding the conditions and needs of students, attention to scientific and educational issues of students. Attention to students' mental and physical needs, having certain personality traits such as discipline and commitment as individual needs of exceptional school management, pursuing the issue of inclusiveness and development of integrated schools, counseling and finally supporting exceptional students' families.
According to the results, it is obvious that conducting this research reveals the views of managers working in the post and allows the trustees of the country's exceptional education organization to take more useful steps within the framework of laws to improve the quality of management of exceptional schools.
Management is one of the most important human endeavors in human social life. Human societies are made up of a set of organizations with different goals, each of which performs its functions. Society achieves the desired goals when all organizations achieve organizational goals by performing tasks and programs. In all organizations, the most important pillar to achieve effective goals is management.
Today, educational management often refers to the concept of leadership, guidance, improvement and change; Therefore, achieving higher goals of education in any society requires reorganization and rethinking in the management of the educational system.
Bolam (1999) defined educational management as an executive function for implementing agreed policies. He believes that management is responsible for policy-making and, if necessary, organizational change.
Bush (2003) believes that educational management should be primarily related to the goals and objectives of education. Inclusive is the training of specialized and skilled forces and the transmission of culture.
Dr. Ali Khalkhali in his Asia-Pacific Management Conference held in Malaysia in collaboration with UPS University in the presence of Professor Tony Bush in 2014, and in the scientific meeting of the Iranian Educational Management Association in 1392 in the presence of Professor Behrangi, in his speeches Presented a new theory in educational management, in this regard, some scholars consider educational management to be the most important organizational activity in the future. In educational programs, the effects, characteristics and unfavorable behavioral patterns as well as the basic factors of the desired pattern should be explained.
School principals influence all aspects of the school. They run organizations whose production is human, and these human beings must be built and paid enough to be fully prepared for tomorrow's life. Therefore, principals have the greatest impact on the goals of the school, ie students, and therefore perform a variety of activities.
Every year, managers encounter problems for the first time. They face various challenges and gain years of experience in the vast and wide sea of the education system. They face any issue that depends on education. From staff selection and evaluation, budget management, social relations to legal issues, etc ... With the support of their officials, they are confident that they are ready for new situations and can easily solve any problem; However, after the first bell rings, many managers find themselves in new positions for which they have little preparation and confidence. They are suddenly in a position to be the final arbiter. Complex issues such as different laws, emergency decisions, training sessions, judging issues, interviews, student placement; these issues are very time consuming. In addition, there is little help in making these decisions, because everyone believes that the manager has the necessary expertise in all areas. Unfortunately, most novice managers are less prepared to deal with their new position and are often asked non-specialist topics.Wilhelm Dilthey has used lived experience as a fundamental concept of the humanities. This word can be translated into three words in English as experience, experience, adventure; However, in philosophical texts, especially those related to Delta, it is translated as Lived Experience. Which is exactly equivalent to the combination of "lived experience" in Persian. Delta's main concern is the demarcation of the sciences and the drawing of the distinction between the natural sciences and the spiritual sciences, a term used in other languages for the humanities. According to Dilthey, the difference between the natural sciences and the spiritual sciences is not in the object or even the cognition they produce, but in the natural sciences they do not pay much attention to internal experience. Thus, if the natural sciences explain or explain nature, in the spiritual sciences the various expressions and manifestations of life are "understood." In the spiritual sciences, human individuality is considered, but in the natural sciences, individuality is subdivided into categories such as generality and generalization. Hence, Dilthey does not consider the methodology of the natural sciences to be suitable for the spiritual sciences, but defends the two concepts of "originality of experience" and "objectivity" that originate in the natural sciences, and believes that the fundamental problem in the meaning of "experience" And the ambiguities in its application are rooted in the study of human affairs